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ISSUED WEEKLY BY 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



o c 



VOL. 33 



NOVEMBER 16, 1936 

FEATURE ARTICLE 

THE HOG AND FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE 
(Page 589) 



NO. 20 



IN THIS ISSUE 

Page 



European bread-grain situation in October 579 

Danube Basin dry bean crop reduced 581 

Egyptian cotton ginnings show good progress 582 

Mediterranean citrus crops large 582 

Isle of Pines increases exports of grapefruit 583 

Great Britain to limit imports of tinned bacon and ham 584 

Britain wool demand continues strong 585 

United States agricultural exports during September 585 

International trade in cotton 587 



578 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 20 

LATE CABLES 



Canad a seco nd official estima te s of 1936 grain crops r e- 
ported as follows, with 1935 comparisons in parentheses: Wheat, 
acreage 25,289,000 acres (24,116*000), production 233,500,000 
"bushels (277,339,000); oats, 13,118,000 acres (14,096,000), 
293,532,000 bushels (418, 995,000) ; barley 4,433,000 acres 
(3,887,000), 72,^26,000 bushels (83,975.000); rye 635,000 acres 
(720,000), 4,368,000 bushels (9,606,000); flaxseed 468,000 acres 
(214,000), 1,779,000 "Bushels (1,472,000). The 16-percent re- 
duction from September estimate of fall-rye production is most 
significant change in November report. (Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, Ottawa, November 12, 1936.) 

Ruman ia, estimates of 1936 productio n reported as follows, 
with 1935 comparisons in parentheses: Wheat 128,712,000 bushels 
(96, 439, 000), " rye 17,834,000 (12,724,000), barley 74,038,000 
(42,430,000) oats 58,353,000 (40, 904, 000), corn 196,839,000 
(211,767,000), flaxseed 551,000 bushels (450,000). (International 
Institute of Agriculture, Rome, November 12, 1936.) 

Frost on November 7 in southern and southwestern parts 
of Province of Buenos Aires not considered heavy enough to 
damage 1936-37 wheat crop of Argentina. (Agricultural Attache* 
?. 0. Nyhus, Buenos Airus, November 9, 1936.) 

Estonia 1935 production o f potatoes estimated at 
35,788,000 bushels as against 32,800,000 bushels in 1935; flax- 
seed 370,000 bushels, or about the same as in 1935. (Inter- 
national Institute of Agriculture, Rome, November 9, 1936.) 

Czechoslovakia sugar-beet production for 1936 estimated 
at 4,623,000 short tons compared with .3, 694, 000 tons in 1935. 
(International Institute of Agriculture, Rome, November 9, 1936.) 



November 16, 1936 



CROP 



Foreign Crops and Markets 
AND MASKS! PROSPECTS 



579 



BREAD GRAINS 

The European bread-grain situation, in October aj 

The strength of the international wheat situation during Octobe r 
was emphasized, in the eyes of European market observers, by the mainte- 
nance of large world shipments, the continued prospect of only a moderate 
Southern Hemisphere crop, the reduction in the Canadian surplus, and the 
lack of shipments or even offers from the Soviet Union. Consequently, the 
sentiment of European markets up to the middle of October pointed toward 
increased prices, and quotations on imported as well as domestic wheat 
advanced to new high levels. Better crop reports from Argentina resulted 
in a price reaction during the second half of the month, but a firmer 
tendency was noted late in the month when there was official confirmation 
of unfavorable crop prospects in Australia. It was expected that the 
market would continue to be sensitive to Southern Hemisphere crop reports 
for several weeks. 

The outstanding recent development in Europe, the devaluation of 
currencies, had little effect on wheat-trade prospects, taken as a whole. 
It was evident that the buying power for wheat in the respective countries 
would not be impaired by the currency moves: first, because the resultant 
increase in the internal price can be obviated by a reduction in import 
tariffs, such as has been decreed in Italy; second, beeuse the currency 
devaluations seemed more likely to stimulate and raise general purchasing 
power than to diminish it. Technical but only temporary obstacles to 
continental wheat business resulted from the devaluation wave. These were 
considered to be of secondary significance, except for some possible effect 
on the volume, or at least the direction, of wheat exports from Rumania. 

Fall sowings 

No definite information was available in October on European sowings 
of winter wheat for the 1937 crop. A large part of the Continent, however, 
experienced considerable cold, rainy weather during late September and 
October. Field work continued intermittently but was, if anything, some- 
what backward as compared with a normal year. Brighter ireather would have 
been welcome. An early and severe winter, such as has been rather freely 
predicted by weather forecasters, might serve to hold down both acreage 
and yields for 1937, but no indications of this have been noted. 

In the case of France, it was thought that, following the light 
harvest and higher prices of this year, farmers would plant an average, or 
somewhat above average, acreage of wheat for 1937, the 1936 area probably 

a/ From a report of the Berlin office of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics,, 
based in part on information furnished by the offices in Paris, Belgrade, and 
London . 



580 



Foreign Crops" and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



CROP AND MARKET" PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



having been "below that of 1935 and the 5-year average. In Belgium, too, 
the area sown to wheat appeared likely to be somewhat expanded this year. 
Sowings in Italy, as well as in Germany, on the other hand, were not ex- 
pected to differ much from those of the past year. In Czechoslovakia, 
there will be a reduction in the wheat area because of the 'governmental 
policy of restriction, while Austria may sow more wheat at the expense of 
sugar beets. 

No numerical estimates of the fall sowings of wheat have been 
published for the Danube Basin. Following earlier climatic handicaps, the 
weather has been generally bright and favorable in all the Danube Basin 
countries since October 15, and sowing has been in full swing everywhere 
since that time.' 

Current crop and deficit estimates 

No significant change in the estimated 1936 wheat crop of Europe 
took place in October. Estimates for 25 countries other than the Soviet 
Union total 1,482,000,000 bushels as compared with 1,573,000,000 bushels 
reported for 1935. A further decrease in the official estimate of the 
German crop, from 176,625,000 to 169,313,000 bushels and a reduction in 
Sweden were not offset by minor increases reported for Czechoslovakia, 
Prance, Norway, and Poland. The final estimate of the Czechoslovak crop, 
indicating a slight increase over the preliminary figure, showed that the 
damage from bad weather conditions was somewhat overestimated earlier in 
the season. Recent estimates for Bulgaria and Rumania changed the Danube 
Basin crop to 375,000,000 bushels as compared with 301,690,000 bushels 
harvested in 1935. 

There has been further confirmation of an unsatisfactory qualita- 
tive outturn of the wheat crop in central and western Europe. Official 
hectoliter-weight requirements were reduced in both Germany and Czecho- 
slovakia. 

Because French requirements probably will be less than expected 
earlier in the season, the 1936-37 estimate of European net imports of 
wheat has been reduced to 349,000,000 bushels. Actual net imports in 
1935-36 amounted to 317,000,000 bushels and in 1934-35 to 332,000,000 
bushels . 

Market s 

In the face of rising world prices and the continuation of a favor- 
able wheat position, import purchases of Danubian and overseas wheat by 
the United Kingdom, Netherlands, Belgium, and Italy assumed significant 



November 16, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 581 

CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



proportions during October. Trading in domestic wheat, particularly in 
central Europe, was quiet and hampered by the small deliveries made by 
farmers occupied with fall work and root-crop harvesting operations. 

Free market prices of domestic wheat and other grains registered 
marked gains during September and October. Such measures as the prohibi- 
tion of grain exports in Sweden and Lithuania, the strict control of the 
sale of bread grains for feeding purposes in Germany, and the actual or 
planned reduction of export subsidies in Rumania and Poland were indica- 
tive of the strength of the market position. 

Soviet Union 

Grain pro curings in the southern regions of European Russia have 
developed favorably, according to regional reports, and full completion 
of the plan is indicated in those districts. Data for the Union as a 
whole are not available. It appears improbable, however, that in a year 
of greatly reduced grain harvests total Union grain deliveries will attain 
last year's reported high level, which exceeded that of any of the previous 
campaigns. Practically no export shipments of grain from Russia have been 
reported so far. 

Autumn sowings of grain, on the whole, are about on last year's 
level. Of the total planned acreage, 94 percent had been put in by 
October 20. In view of the severe drought experienced in a large section 
of the Union last spring and summer, autumn and winter precipitation will 
be of decisive importance this year, notably in the semi-arid regions of 
southern and southeastern European Russia. Unsatisfactory progress of 
autumn plowing for 193? spring sowings, from the standpoint of this year's 
plan, has been complained of during the past weeks. The plan, however, 
is much above last year and the plowed acreage this autumn is considerably 
larger than during previous years. 



DRY BEANS 

Danube Basin dry bean crop reduced 

Production <}f dried beans in the Danube Basin this year is now 
estimated at about 10,820,000 bags of 100 pounds each by the Belgrade 
office of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. This compares with a crop 
of 10,941,000 bags produced in 1935 and 12,247,000 bags, the average pro- 
duction during the 5 years 1930-1934. Of this year's crop, approximately 
7,255,000 bags represent beans interplanted with other crops, principally 
corn. 



582 



Foreign Crops and Markets 
CROP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, 



Vol. 33, No. 20 
CON T'D 



The latest estimate is considerably "below that made "by the Belgrade 
office in August of this year when the crop was tentatively forecast at 
12,544,000 "bags. The decrease occurred entirely in Rumania, the leading 
bean-producing country of the Danube Basin, and was due to high tempera- 
tures and lack of rain during the second half of July and throughout August. 
Prospects in the other Danubian countries have improved slightly since 
Augus t . 

As a result of the reduced crop prospects, exports during the mar- 
keting year beginning September 1, 1936, are estimated at only about 
2,811.000 bags, compared with actual exports of 2,890,000 bags from last 
year's crop, and 3,404,000 bags, the average annual exports during the 
5 years 1930-31 to 1934-35. The estimated export for 1936-37 is somewhat 
larger than might appear justified on the basis of production and average 
home consumption. This is due to the exceptionally large corn crops in 
Bulgaria, Hungary » and Yugoslavia this year. As a result, prices of beans 
are high relative to corn which is expected to curtail the home consumption 
of the former. 

Marketings of beans were large around the middle of September and 
resulted in some price decreases, but an active export demand late in 
October brought about an improvement in prices which now average from 15 
to 25 percent higher than a year ago. 



COTTON 

Egyptian cotton g innings show good progress 
I 

Cotton g innings in Egypt from September 1 to the end of October 
amounted to 785,000 bales of 478 pounds net, including scar to or linters, 
according to a cablegram from the International Institute of Agriculture 
at Rome. This compares with 683,400 bales ginned to the end of October 
1935. Of this season's ginnings, 32,000 bales were of the Sak&llaridis 
variety and 740,000 bales of other varieties, compared with 42,065 and 
629.524 bales, respectively, during the corresponding period last season. 
Total ginn trigs during the 1935-3 6 season amounted to 1,769,000 bales. 



FRUITS, VEGETABLES, AND NUTS 

Mediterranean citrus crops large 

The 193 6 orange crop in the Mediterranean Basin will be larger 
than last year, according to a communication from L. D- Mai lory, Assistant 



November 16, 1936 .. Foreign Crops, and Markets 583 
CHOP A H. D MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



Agricultural Attache at Paris. The winter lemon crop in Sicily is smaller 
than last year "but the prospects for summer lemons are good. Palestine is 
the principal grapefruit-producing country in this region and a large crop 
is in prospect. 

The orange and. grapefruit crops of Mediterranean countries are 
largely exported during the winter months. Lemons are exported the year 
round. Because of the competition from oranges and lemons produced in 
Spain, Italy, and Palestine, exports of these fruits to Europe from the 
United States are light in the winter season, or from about November to 
April. The larger summer lemon crop has more significance as far as 
American lemon exports are concerned, since important quantities of lemons 
have been exported from the United States during the summer season in the 
past 2 years. The large grapefruit crop in Palestine will have a direct 
bearing on the exports of grapefruit, from the United States until the end 
of the Palestine shipping season in April. 

Spain has enjoyed good growing conditions and a good crop is in 
prospect. Exports cannot be predicted because of the disturbances in Spain 
but it may be expected that every effort will he made to continue this 
enterprise which is so important to the national economy. Palestine has 
a large crop of both oranges and grapefruit and has taken steps to improve 
the pack and appearance of the fruit and to limit the size of the fruit 
which may be exported. The orange crop of eastern Sicily is rated as good 
and with a normal trade movement this year exports will be substantially 
larger than last season. Central European countries are the chief outlets. 
Exports of lemons, even from the small winter crop, should be larger than 
the restricted exports during 1935-36 and indications are that exports of 
summer lemons will be larger than last year, providing weather conditions 
are favorable. 

Isle of Pines increases exports of grapefruit 

Exports of grapefruit from the Isle of Pines, Cuba, will probably 
total around 225,000 boxes for the 1936-37 season, writes Consul Harold 
S. Tewell at Habana. Total exports in July, August, and September were 
193,998 boxes, with about 25,000 boxes yet to go forward. Exports have been, 
the heaviest for several years. In 1933-34, exports amounted to only about 
77,000 boxes because of hurrican damage. Exports jumped to around 155,000 
"boxes in 1934-35, but declined to 110,000 boxes in the following season, 
owing to dry weather during the winter which retarded the growth and dimin- 
ished the size of the fruit. 



584 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, Ho . 20 

CHOP AND MARKET PROSPECTS, CONT'D 



LIVESTOCK, MEAT, AND WOOL 

Brit ain to limit imports of tinned "bacon and h am 

Quantitative restrictions on imports of non-Empire tinned bacon and 
ham into the United Kingdom have "been decided upon, according to cabled 
advice from Agricultural Attache C. C Taylor at London. These items will 
continue to represent part of the general cured-pork quotas. The proportion 
of the total imports of cured pork made up by tinned bacon and ham has in- 
creased considerably since the inauguration of the auota system, although 
these items represented but 1 percent of the total cured-pork imports during 
the first 9 months of 1936. British manufacturers have asked for either 
quantitative control or an increase in the 10-percent import duty now charged 
on such imports. It has therefore been proposed to limit future imports to 
70 percent of the quantity sent by foreign suppliers in 1935, or to approxi- 
mately 5,880,000 pounds annually, The share of each country in the total 
quota has not been definitely decided, but it is suggested that the United 
States quota will be around 56,700 pounds and the quotas of insignificant 
suppliers not less than 5,600 pounds each. 

TINITED BACON AND HAM: Imports into the United Kingdom from United States, 
all quota countries, and total imports, 1934-1936 a/ 







1934 






1935 






1936 




Month 


United 
States 


Quota 
coun- 
tries 


Total 


Unitea 
States 


Quota 
coun- 
tries 


Total 


Unitea 
States 


Quota 
coun- 
tries 


Total 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1 , 000 


1,000 


1 , 000 


1,000 




TDOunds 


pounas 


pounas 


pounas 


pounas 


pounas 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


Jan 


H 


k/ 


k/ 


_c. 


485 


755 


0 


343 


739 


Feb 


k/ 


k/ 


k/ 


1 


358 


637 


1 


271 


723 


March .... 


32 


557 


843 


2 


449 


870 


6 


333 


918 


April .... 


1 


685 


913 


d 


439 


882 


c/ 


537 


953 


May 


6 


520 


760 


25 


462 


934 


0 


340 


659 


June 


16 


607 


838 


$J 


426 


801 


1 


531 


745 


July 


sJ 


631 


934 


u 


678 


1,201 


2 


507 


932 


Aug 


8 


595 


862 


c/ 


389 


633 


% 


330 


718 


Sept 


0 


346 


526 


1 


220 


380 




206 


475 


Jan.~Sept . 








29 


3,906 


7,093 


10 


3,403 


6,862 


Oct 


k/ 


453 


669 


fi/ 


141 


432 








Nov 


1 


480. 


782 


1 


92 


380 








Dec 


26 


333 


721 


1 


191 


624 








Total . • . 


a/ 90 


a/5,207 


a/7,848 


31 


4,330 


8,529 









Compilea from official recoras of the British Boara of Traae . 
imports, unadjusted for reexports, b/ Not available by months 
than 500 pounds, d/ March- December only. 



a/ Gr 



oss 



c/ Less 



November 16, 1936 Poreign Crops end Markets 585 

CROP All MARKET PROSPECTS, C 0 N T 1 D 



Of the countries furnishing tinned cured pork to the British market, 
Poland is by far the most important, sending over 27 percent of the total 
during the first 9 months of the current year. Denmark and Austria each 
furnished 15 percent, Germany 14 percent , Prance and the Netherlands each 
5 percent, with considerable amounts being supplied by Yugoslavia, Czecho- 
slovakia., and Switzerland. The United States has contributed only negli- 
gible quantities daring the past 9 months. In 1934 this country furnished 
a little over 1 percent of the total. 

British wo o l demand continues strong 

British buyers of raw wool continued active early in November de- 
spite the upward price trend, according to Consul S. E. Evans at Bradford. 
Most recent reports from exporting countries indicated a keener competition 
for available supplies, with England and. Prance the principal buyers in 
Australia. Other countries, including the United States, have been actively 
represented. The absence of Japan from tne Australian sales is reported as 
being offset by the additional buying interest of other countries which find 
it impossible to operate in South Africa against the concentration of Japane 
activity in that country. Prench buyers appear to have been better able 
than the British to keep up with the price advances registered in Australia 
at the late October sales. This situation has forced a revision of British 
ideas concerning maximum prices. The earlier policy of cautious buying has 
resulted in the British industry being definitely under-bought in raw materi 



UNITED STATES AGRI CULTURAL EXPORTS DURING- SEPTEMBER 

The month of September was marked by a rise in United States exports 
of farm products, the volume index for the month standing at 63. This 
was the highest monthly index of the present calendar year and exceeded the 
volume exported during the corresponding month in each of the 2 preceding 
years. Cotton and tobacco exports accounted for much of the rise* Exports 
of grains and meats changed only slightly. 

The index for cotton rose to 79, the highest since December 1935 
and the highest September index since 1933. Leaf tobacco with an index of 
134 also made a good showing. This duplicated the index for January of this 
year but otherwise was the highest since November 1935, Nearly all of this 
gain was in heavier exports of relatively high-priced flue-cured leaf to the 
United kingdom. Though less fxuit was exported than during the preceding 
month and also less than during September 1935 exports continued at a high 
level, the index standing at 327 percent of the prewar average. 



586 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS DURING SEPTEMBER, CONT'D 

Acciinmlations 

The- total value of agricultural exports for the first 3 months of 
the present fiscal year amounted to $152,535,000, During the July- Sept ember- 
period of 1935, the export value stood at $158,613,000. During this year's 
period, there was a 10-percent decrease in volume. 

In the 3 months ended September 30, the United States exported 
950,000 bales of cotton, valued at $60,025,000 as against 1,061,000 bales 
valued at $66,253,000 last season. E;ports to the United Kingdom end France 
were much ahead of last season and exports to Germany were moderately higher, 
but Japan, Italy, Spain, and Poland greatly reduced their purchases of 
American cotton. 

More leaf tobacco has been exported so far this season than during the 
July-SeptemQer period of 1935. Nearly all. of the gain was in exports of the 
flue-cured type which increased from 71,278,000 pounds valued at $33,524,000 
in July-September of 1935 to 76,535,000 pounds valued at $30,150,000 in 1936. 

Because of a short domestic crop, exports of fresh apples and canned 
fruit fell off but foreign ma-rkets absorbed more fresh pears, dried apricots, 
prunes, and raisins than during July-September 1935. 



UNITED STATES. Index numbers of the volume of agricultural exports 
adjusted for seasoned variation, September 1936, with comparisons 
(July 1909 - June 1914 = 100) 



Commodity or commodity group 




1934 


1935 


1936 


Sept « 


Sept. 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 






60 


59 


39 


40 


63 


All commodities, except cotton 




56 


48 


33 


39 


44 


Cotton fiber, including linters,... 




65 


69 


50 


51 - 


79 




•I 


148 


147 


70 


98 


134 




i 


301 


391 


294 


376 


327 






17 


10 


19 


15 


19 






19 


18 


17 


21 


19 




• 


19 


14 


23 


15 


10 




— 1~ 


90 


4 

i . . . 


■ 22 


18 


22 



Bureau of Agricultural Economics. Compiled from official records of the 
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. For detailed figures on exports, 
see page 607. 

a/ Includes stems, trimmings, etc. 

b/ Includes bacon, hams, shoulders, and sides* 



November 16, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 587 

v 

INTEPNAT IONAL TRADE IN COTTON 

The United States exported more cotton during the first 2 months 
(August and September) of the present cotton year, than during the corre- 
sponding 2 months of 1934 and 1955, "but considerably less than the 1923-1932 
average, the total amounting to 788,000 bales. The increase in exports to 
Prance was the outstanding feature of this trade, total exports to that 
market standing at 152,000 bales. This was more than double the exports 
to France during the August- September periods of 1934 and 1935 and also a 
gain over the 1923-1932 average for these months. Both the United Kingdom 
and Germany took more United States cotton during August -Sept ember 1937 than 
during the same period of the 2 preceding years but exports to most other 
importing countries fell off. More Indian cotton was exported this season 
than last but these exports were a little under the August- Sept ember exports 
for the 10 years, 1923-1932 and also less than in 1934. Japan is taking a 
much larger share of Indian exports. In 1936, 155,000 bales or 59 percent 
of the total experts went to Japan. Exports from Egypt during August- 
September stood at 140,000 bales, a decline when compared with the 2 pre- 
ceding years. Japan and Germany- are purchasing more Egyptian cotton. 



COTTON, HAW: Destination of export 
August- September, average 1 



s from principal exporting countries, 
923-1932, annual 1934-1936 a/ 



Destination 
of exports 
from principal 
exporting 
countries 



Exports from the 
United States to 

Germany 

United. Kingdom 

France 

Italy 

Spain 

U.S.3.R. 

(Russia) &/ 

Belgium 

Netherlands. . 

Sweden 

Portugal 

Poland & Danz 

Other Europe. 
Total Europe 
Canada 

Japan 

China 

British India 

Other countries 
Total 



Augu s t-Septemb e r 



Average 
1923- 
1 932 
1,000 
bales 
311 
194 
142 
86 

49 
26 
18 
9 
7 
2 
9 

904~ 
15 

129 
35 
3 

1 

1,083 



Q uant i ty 



P ere e n t of total 



1934 



l,.000iL,000 



b ales 
~ 103 " 

QQ 

65 
55 
44 

0 

14 
12 
13 
4 
34 

_JL5_ 
" 458 
28" 

239 
20 

\i 
2_ 

747 



1935 



bales 
104 " 
170 
75 
57 



0 
18 

8 
11 

11 

36 
_15 

537 
"25" 
200 
2 

o/ 
5_ 

769 



1936 



1,000 
b ales 
10 7 
179 
152 
2$ 
1/ 

Ml 

20 



7 
24 
_19 

55 3 
~25 
195 
0 

b/ 
10 

788 



Average 
1923- 
1932 



Percent 
" 29 
18 
13 



4 
2 
2 
1 

/ 

c ' 



7 



1_ 

83 

12 

3 



c/ 
c7 



100 



1934 



Pe rcent 
14 
13 

9 

7 

6 



_1_ 

61 
4" 

32 
3 

sJ 

SLL 

100 



1935 



Percent 
14 
22 
10 



2 



~~70 
3~ 

26 
c/ 

£/ 

1 

100 



Perc ent 
14 



100 



Continued - 



588 



Foreign Crops and Market; 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



COTTON, RAW: 
Angus t-SejL 



INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN COTTON, CONT'D 

Destination of exports from principal exporting countries, 
tember, average 1923-1932., annual 1934-1936 a/ cont'd 



Destination 
of exports 
from principal 
exporting 
countries 



Angus t - S ent ernb e r 



Average 



Quantity 



Average 



Percent of total 



1923- 


: 1934 : 


1935 


1936 


— — -~o- 

1923- 


; 1934 


; 1935 


1936 


1932 








1932 








1,000 


1,000 : 


1,000 


1,000 










bales 


bales : 


bale s 


bales 


Percent 


. Percent 


! Percent 


Percent 


133 


150: 


96 


155 


46 


% # -55 


: 45 : 


59 


32 


35: 


22 


22 


11 


j& 13 


: ii 


■8 


28 


: 5; 


5 


5 


10 


; 2 


; 2 


2 


25 


11: 


15 


9 


9 


: 4 


: 7 


: 3 


23- 


13; 


11 


14 


8 


1 5 


: 5 


5 


16 


15; 


9 


12 


6 


5 


4 


5 


14 


21; 


33 


27 


5 


8 


i 16 


: 10 


6 


9' 


5 


ti 


2 


3 


: 3 


; — 


4 


£ 


2 


LI 


1 


3. 


■ 1 


— 


5 


10: 


11 


19 


2 


4 


: 5 


: 8 


286 


273 


209 


263 


100 


100 


. 100 


100 


46 


45 


41 


44 


34 


27 


29 


31 


18 


on 1 
22; 


14 


lb 


"J rj 


-Lo 






13 


6 


3 


3 


10 


4 


2 


2 


e/ 12 


ti •: 


f / 


• ti 


9 








12 


15 


15 


i? 


9 


9 


10 


12 


9 


15 


15 


9 


7 


9 


11 


6 


6 


8; 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


4 


5 


8i 


11 


,0 


4 


5 


8 


0 


4 


13; 


6 


14 


3 


8 


4 


10 


4 


9: 


10 


8 


3 


5 


7 




a 


5> 


3 


3 


1 


3 


2 


2 


i 


eg 


4 


3 


1 




3 


2 


3 


ii 


17 


i p 


2 


/ 


11 : 


13 


135 


167"; 


143 


140 


100 


100 


ioo ; 


100 



a to 



Briti sh Ind 
Japan. . 
Italy. . 
China. . 

Germany 
Belgium 
France 
United Kingdom 

Spain 

Netherlands . . . 
- Other count rie 



Total. 



Egyp t to 

United Kingdom 

France 

United States. 
Soviet Rassia. 
Germany. . . . 

Italy 

Switzerland 

Spain 

Japan 

Czechoslavakia 
Poland & Danzig 
British India. . 
Other countries 



Total, 



Compiled from official sources. 

a/ Bales of 478 pounds net except the United States which are in bales of 

509 pounds gross. 

b/ Less than 500 bales. 

ft/ Less than 0.5 percent. 

d/ ^Beginning January 1, 1935, includes Russia in Asia. 

e/ 9-year average, 1923-1931. . . 

f / If any, included in "other countries." 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



589 



THE HOG AND FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE a/ 

Latest census returns show that the previously reported upturn in 
hog numbers in Europe has become more general, and among the important 
hog-producing countries only Hungary has reported a decline in numbers 
in 1936. The importance of feed supplies has increased with the expansion 
in hog production, and the growing tendency in European countries to relate 
hog numbers to assured feed supplies and remunerative market demand should 
receive an impetus from advancing world prices for feed grains. The feed 
situation and the limitations placed on export outlets for pork products 
suggest that further increases in hog numbers will not be great and that 
in some countries the peak in production is being approached, if it has not 
already been passed. See tables, pages 601 and 602. 

Available data for the greater part of the first three quarters of 1936 
show marketings and slaughter of hogs in Europe to be slightly smaller than 
during the comparable period of 1935. The increase which has occurred in 
hog production, together with an expected seasonal increase in marketings 
and slaughter during the last quarter, however, should result in total 
slaughter for 1936 being larger than last year. A further increase in 
slaughter is in prospect for 1937; consequently, during the coming winter 
European pork supplies will be larger and Europe's need for Western Hemi- 
sphere pork will be less than it was during the winter of 1935-36. 

While the heavier slaughter of hogs in Europe will materially in- 
crease pork supplies, it will not result in a general improvement in the 
lard and pork-fat situation. With prospects of reduced exports of American 
lard in 1937, total lard and pork-fat supplies in Europe will likely be 
smaller than in 1936. The restrictions affecting fat imports, which were 
modified in the deficit countries on the Continent during the winter of 
1935-36, may be further modified in the coming winter, and certainly not 
made more severe. 

The increased movement of pork and fat supplies from surplus to 
deficit areas on the Continent during the past season has been effected 
largely through clearing and compensation agreements. Such trading has 
limitations, the greatest limiting factor at present being the ability of 
the surplus-pork countries to absorb the industrial and other goods offered 
in payment by the deficit-pork countries. The probable effect of the recent 
currency devaluations on the movement of pork products is not entirely clear, 
but it is likely that improved trade possibilities will be confined to those 
countries which have devalued, whereas the tendency toward export subsidies 
in the other countries will increase. 

In general, hog and pork prices in those countries where prices are 
not fixed have shown an upward tendency during the third quarter. Price de- 
clines will likely accompany the increased slaughter of the fourth quarter, 
but the fat situation should provide sufficient support to keep the decline 
within moderate limits. 

a/ From «. report prepared by Agricultural Commissioner H. E. Reed, Berlin, 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 20 

THE HOG AND FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE , CONT'D 
United Kingdom a/ 

1937 -pig co ntracts 

Contracts for pigs under the British Pig Marketing Scheme for 1937 
are nor being offered. The average annual price payable for Grade B pigs 
in Class I will be 12s. per score, dressed weight (14.65 cents per pound 
at current rates of exchange). Grade A pigs are to average 6d. higher, 
and Grade C, 6d. lower (0.5 cent per pound). Monthly variations in price 
are arranged for as follows: If between 2,200,000 and 2,400,000 pigs are 
contracted, the minimum price for Class I, Grade A, pigs will be for January 
12s. 3d. February 12s. 3d., March 12s. 9d. , April 12s. 6d. , May 12s. Od. , June 
lls.9d. , July to October lis. 61., November lls.9d., and December 12. 6d. , 
making an unweighted average of 12s. If the number of pigs contracted on 
January 1, 1937, is 2,400,000 or more, the basic price will be increased 
by 2d. per score (0.2 cent per pound). 

The limitation on price increases permitted under conditions of high 
ration costs has been raised. The basic price will be Id. per score (0.1 cent 
per pound) higher for each complete 3d. excess ration cost over 7s. 6d. up 
to and including 9s. per 112 pounds (1.64 cents up to 1.96 cents per pound). 
The limit on such increases is therefore 6d. per score (0.6 cent per pound). 
On the other hand, the price will be reduced according to the same scale 
for decreases in ration cost, without limitation. The new system disregards 
the price of bacon and offals in arriving at the pigs price, in this respect 
reverting to the method used in the first 6 months of the scheme, November- 
April, 1933-34. 

No guaranty has been made of equitable distribution of the contracted 
pigs among curers. They, however, may have the option of paying an extra 
Is., 2s., and 3s. per pig (approximately 24, 49, and 73 cents) for deliveries 
of live pigs for distances exceeding 50, 100, and 175 miles, respectively. 
Some further adjustments may be made if the contract prices are found to be 
uneconomic either for pig producers or bacon curers. 

Bacon and ham 

The increased output of British bacon factories which has followed 
the increase in domestic hog production has lessened Great Britain's de- 
pendence on imported supplies, and this, together with increased imports 
from Inpire countries, has permitted marked curtailment of shipments from 
foreign countries. Cured- pork imports from foreign countries during the 
last quarter of 1936 have been further reduced to compensate for a seasonal 
increase in domestic production and keep total supplies for the year as near 
as possible to 10,670,000 hundredweights, estinat d by the Lane-Fox committee 
as the normal domestic consumption. See tables, page 603. 



a/ From a report by Agricultural Attache C. C. Taylor at London. 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



531 



THE HOG AND FAT SITUATION IS EUROPE, CONT'D 

Under present conditions, increases or decreases in foreign quotas 
will not mean much to the United States. Shipments from the United States 
during the first 9 months of this year, in addition to buing smaller than 
last year, have "been below permitted quota quantities. A part of the 
American deficit has been pro-rated among the other regulated supplying 
countries. See table, page 602. 

The seasonal increase which occurred in arrivals of bacon and ham 
during the third quarter of 1936 brought imports for that quarter to higher 
levels than in the preceding year, but quotas have kept imports for the 
first 9 months of 1936 considerably lower than in the corresponding months 
of 1935. Shipments from foreign countries during 1936 have been more in 
keeping with quota amounts than they were in the earlier years of quantita- 
tive limitations, and in addition a better seasonal distribution of supplies 
has obtained, especially during the summer. As a result, it was possible 
through August and September to bold the seasonal advance in bacon prices 
which came in July. Ham prices did not fare so well, and after the July 
advance sharp declines came in August with excessive Canadian supplies. 
Ham prices, however, recovered in September with the seasonal decline in 
imports. The seasonal decline in bacon prices, which usually comes in the 
autumn, was not in evidence in mid-October, and with the better adjustment 
of supplies the decline should not be a.s great as in former years. 

Pork 

Further evidence of the shift toward Empire supplies is seen in im- 
ports of chilled arid frozen pork. During 1936 chilled and frozen pork ship- 
ments from Australia and New Zealand, have been so great that even with the 
marked reduction in shipments from foreign countries, which has come with 
the practical withdrawal of the United States from this trade, imports have 
reached record proportions. Handling of the increased supplies have been 
such that they have not been burdensome and prices for New Zealand pigs 
have been well maintained. The seasonal advance in prices for fresh pork 
and porker pigs was well under way by October 1. See table, page 605. 

Lard 

Of more interest to the American hog industry than the shift toward 
Empire and domestic pork supplies are the changes which have occurred in 
British imports of lard and competitive fats. Net imports of lard, which 
averaged about 280,000,000 pounds annually during the years 1930-1932 
(average years), exceeded 313,600,000 pounds in 1933 and 1934 (record years), 
and declined to 171,472,000 pounds in 1935. Marked reductions in shipments 
to England from the United States, which continues to be the largest single 
supplier of lard to the British market, and the Netherlands have brought 
total lard imports for the first 9 months of 1936 to the lowest level for 
a number of years, and in view of prospects for 1937 it is doubtful if this 



592 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



THE HOC- AID PaT 31 TUITION IN EUROPE, CONT'D 

year's net imports will equal those of last year. See tallies, page 604. 
Since British hogs are chiefly baconers and light-weight porkers, changes 
in total lard supplies resulting from domestic lard production are negli- 
gible. In IS 35 and the first 9 months of 1936, the reduction from normal 
imported supplies was approximately offset by increased imports of competi- 
tive oils and fats. It can be assumed that a large proportion of the in- 
crease in imports of vegetable and marine oils is being used for edible 
purposes and that this development has been aided by the lower prices 
which obtained for the artificial fats. 

For the present, it is reasonable to regard the change as a replace- 
ment of lard by vegetable and marine oils rather than a shift in demand, 
^ow terrroorarv or k° w permanent the replacement may be remains to be seen. 
Should the situation continue for some time, however, and the British people 
become accustomed to the change, regaining the position formerly held by 
lard in British markets would probably come only with reductions in price 
which would permit lard to undersell competitive fats. It appears that 
American lard interests have far more to fear from competition with vege- 
table and marine oils than from competition with South American end Danubian 
lard. Indeed, the general opinion of the British trade is to the effect 
that the interests of American lard exporters would be served should 
competitive lard fill the gap until such time as the United States is again 
able to take over the market. It is not unlikely that during the coming 
winter the British market, paying with free pounds, will offer more 
attraction to Danubian and other lards than will those markets which must 
pay with goods or services. 

Prom early June, when the drought in the United States became ap- 
parent, to late August lard prices advanced about 20 percent, declined 
slightly in September, and recovered during the first half of October. 
Since early May lard prices ha.ve been much lower than those of last year, 
but British quotations ha.ve followed Chicago advices. 

Countries important in Briti s h market supplies 

Denmark 

Danish hog-number estimates as of August 29, based on a partial 
census, show a continuation of the upward trend and, with a total of 
3,718,000 head on that date, were higher than on any previous census or 
estimate date since December IS 33. Most of the increase shown over the 
July census occurred in slaughter-hog and suckling-pig categories. 
On the basis of the estima.tes, Danish authorities have forecast average 
weekly slaughter for the period August 26, 1936, to July 24, 1937, at 
95,500 head, a figure greatly in excess of comparable slaughter in the pre- 
ceding year and one which exceeds probable market outlets. Heaviest 
slaughter, according to the forecast, would come in the first quarter of 
1937, when a, weekly number of 114,000 hogs of bacon weights could be made 



November 16, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 



593 



THE HOG- AND FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE, CONT'D 

available. Weekly slaughter will not, of course, approach such numbers 
because large numbers of pigs under 110 pounds,, live weight, which are out- 
side the scope of control, are being and will continue to be slaughtered. 
Nevertheless-,, with statements from Great Britain indicating no increase in 
the permitted total supply on British markets, the anticipated increases in 
British import quotas for 1936 apparently dependent on the reduction in 
domestic production, and the marked expansion in Germany's domestic produc- 
tion, the outlook for marketing Denmark' s surplus is not favorable. 

From the long-time point of view, improvement can be expected from 
the continued decline in bred- sow numbers which first came into evidence 
in the July census data. Bred-sow numbers, which had shown an increasing 
tendency from October 1934 to June 1936 when a peak of 314,000 was reached, 
declined to 255,000 by August 29, 1936, the lowest number on any census or 
estimate, date since April 1935, Should the number of bred sows in the fall 
estimates snow a, continuance of the decline, it will be apparent that the 
upward trend in numbers has been arrested and declines in total hog numbers 
will follow. See table, page 602. 

The Danish hog-control scheme teas expected to bring production into 
line with demand by paying low and unremunerative jjrices for surplus hogs, but i 
it is noted that the first indication of a decline in numbers has come as a 
result of the July 1 regulation prohibiting the marketing of one-litter 
gilts as sows rather than from low prices for surplus hogs. During periods 
of declining and of rather stable production the control pleasures functioned 
effectively, but during the period of increasing production the measures 
were not sufficiently inclusive to prevent the development of a surplus. 
Boars, sows, and pigs under 110 pounds are outside the scope of the scheme, 
and in marketing their surplus gilts as sows after they had had one litter 
and increasing the marketing of pigs weighing less than 110 pounds, Danish 
farmers have been able to escape much of the loss which would have come had 
the entire surplus been marketed at bacon weights and without the cards 
entitling them to the higher prices paid for bacon-weight hogs under the 
control scheme. 

The effectiveness of the July 1 regulation, adopted to forestall the 
marketing of one-litter gilts as sows and requiring sows under 18 months of 
age to be marketed only as without-card hogs, is shown by the decline in 
pregnant gilt numbers from 125,000 on June 13 to 77,000 on August 29. Mar- 
ket ings of pigs under 110 pounds, however, have continued at a higher rate, 
something like 125,000 having been slaughtered during the June-August period. 
At present, it appears that the surplus has or will attain such proportions 
that the without-card price may become more effective in discouraging produc- 
tion. In addition, advancing world prices for feed grains have accentuated 
the low prices for surplus hogs and also partially offset the higher prices 
for hogs with cards, which came with the strong bacon market in England dur^ 
ing August and September. From the first of the year to the first of August 
the without-card hog-corn price ratio showed a downward trend; since August 



594 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20j 



THE HOG AND EAT SITUATION IN EUROPE, CONT'D 

it lias fluctuated between I • 4 and 1 ; 4.2 (1 : 6 is considered necessary 
to break even). Feeder -pig prices have dropped from Kr. 30 ($5.55 at current 
rate of exchange) per head 'in early April to Kr. 10 ($2.19) per head in 
early October (Kr. 18, $3.95, assumed to be necessary to break even). 

Slaughter at export slaughterhouses during the first 7 months of 1936 
was smaller than in the corresponding months of 1935; but.,, for the period 
February- July , slaughter in 1936 exceeded that of 1935. During the first 
9 mo&ths of 1936 bacon exports totaled 297,000,000 pounds, compared with 
338,000,000 pounds during the same period last year. Lard exports were also 
reduced, 21,000,000 pounds having been exported this year compared with 
22,000,000 pounds last year. Exports of live hogs to Germany, however, have 
greatly increased, 117,000 head having been exported in the first 9 months 
of 1935, compared with 3,700 in the seme period of -1935. With the advent 
of the summer pork shortage in 'Germany, arrangements were made for Denmark 
to ship agricultural produce in excess of the be.sic quota provided by the 
Danish-German trade agreement and accept in return 660,000 to 880,000 short 
tons of German coal, delivery of the latter to be deferred until acceptance 
is practical. Consequently, from mid-July hog shipments have been stepped 
up and throughout September have exceeded 5,000 hea.d weekly. 

N etherlands 

Preliminary returns of the August 1936 hog census in the Netherlands 
show a continuation of the upward trend in numbers. Compared with those of 
August 1935, total numbers show an increase of 9.9 percent, but a rather 
sharp decline occ\irred in sow numbers between May and August this year, and 
under present conditions in the Netherlands it is unlikely that further 
marked increases in hog production will occur. The increase in farrowings 
has been so great that it now appears that all of this year's allotted ear- 
marks and the carry-over from last year will be used by the end of 1936. 
Under Dutch control measures, production in excess of ear-mark allocation 
is illegal, but toward the end of this year it may be politically expedient 
for the control agency to do some relief work and buy surplus unmarked pigs. 
The control authorities have been successful in maintaining hog prices, but 
rising world prices for feed grains have made the hog-feed price ratio un- 
favorable, It was hoped that Dutch prices for hogs could be advanced to 
compensate for higher feed prices, \>ut the recent devalua,tion of the guilder 
will probably accentuate this unfavorable price relationship. 

Slaughter for domestic consumption during the second quarter of 1936, 
while seasona-lly smaller than during the first quarter, showed an increa.se 
over slaughter in the second quarter of last year. With the increase in 
marketings, which has come with increased production, third end fourth 
quarter slaughter for domestic consumption will a.lso run higher than in the 
corresponding quarters of last year. Slaughter for export has declined, 
largely because of reduced British quotas, and, with the decline, market 



/ 



November 15, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



595 



'THE HOG- AND FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE , CONT'D 

receipts of hogs were so "burdensome throughout the third quarter that the 
control authorities found it necessary to resort to market- supporting- 
purchases. With the devalued guilder, the Netherlands' export position 
may improve, particularly with those countries where her exports are not 
quotaed on a tonnage "basis. 

Poland 

Preliminary returns of the June 30, 1936, hog census in Poland, 
when compared with the 1935 census, show an increase of 4.9 percent in 
total hog numbers. Prior to the publication of the returns, it was thought 
probable that the increased marketings during the period July 1935 - June 
1936 following the 5-percent decline in numbers as shown by the 1935 census 
represented some liquidation and that, accordingly, a decrease in numbers 
would be shown by the 1936 census. It now appears, assuming the 1934, 1935, 
and 1936 census data to be comparable, that the favorable hog-feed price 
ratios and increased marketing opportunities of the past year, together 
with a Government policy directed toward expansion in livestock production 
and increased exports of livestock products, have been sufficient to en- 
courage an increase in breeding operations. The largest increases have 
occurred in the districts where greatly increased and improved marketing 
opportunities have obtained during the past year. In view of the increased 
domestic consumption and export of hogs during the period between census 
dates, the expansion in hog production is greater than is indicated by the 
percentage increase in total numbers. Barring unforeseen upsets, further 
expansion is probable, since Poland is entering the 1936-37 hog year with 
the most favorable feed situation of any northern European country. 

A seasonal decline in marketings during May-July brought both market- 
ings and slaughter at 32 important markets to lower levels than those of the 
same months last year. Despite the 5-percent decline in hog numbers reported 
as of June 1935, this is the first time since May 1934 that marketings and 
slaughter have shown declines compared with corresponding data for the pre- 
ceding year. A greater- than- seasqnal increase in marketings for August, 
however, brought slaughter at 32 centers to a new record for that month. Data 
relating to the Corridor show a continuation of the increasing trend in mar- 
ketings during September and October. 

Hog prices reached a peak in early July, and after a slight decline 
were maintained throughout August. Further price declines came with the 
increased marketings in September. Hog-feed price ratios, while showing 
some decline with the lower hog prices, continue at favorable levels. 

The increased exports of pork products from Poland have been well 
maintained. Reduced exports of bacon to Great Britain have been more than 
offset by exports of carcasses, hams, and lard to other countries. Somewhat 
reduced live-hog exports to Austria are to be expected from the recent 



596 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



THE HOG- AMD FAT SITUATION III EUROPE, CONT'D 

Austrian-Polish trade agreement. The probable effect of the recent currency 
devaluation moves of other countries on exports of pork products from Poland 
is not entirely clear "because of the importance of clearing and compensation 
agreements in Polish export trade. Devaluation of the zloty would partially, 
although probably not entirely, eliminate the necessity for export subsidies 
on certain pork products. Recently published data show an increase in total 
meat consumption in Poland in 1935. Approximately two-thirds of the total 
increase was due to greater pork consumption. 

Germany 

Hog numbers 

The largest number of hogs ever recorded for Germany, 25,895,235 
head, was shown by the September 4, 1936, census. Including the Saar, the 
number was increased to 26,007,162. German hog numbers have shown an in- 
creasing tendency since the low point was reached in June 1935, bat the 
larger- than- seasonal increase between June and September this year has come 
partly from an accumulation of slaughter hogs on farms, feed supplies having 
been insufficient to permit marketing the hogs at minimum slaughter weights. 
The September data show stocks of slaughter hogs over 6 months old to be 
larger than on any other census date except September 1934, and the number 
of pigs under 6 months to be larger than on any census date except September 
1931. Looking farther ahead into the supply situation, both sow numbers 
and bred-sow numbers are larger than for any other September census except 
1931, the peak year of German hog production. With such numbers, the im- 
portance of feed supplies as a factor in the German pork and fat situation 
has greatly increased. See table, page 602. 

Peed situation 

Statistically the feed situation appears to be worse than last year. 
Hog numbers on September 4 were 14.1 percent larger than last year, but 
this year's potato crop is estimated to be only 11.4 percent larger than 
last year's production, the barley crop only 2.4 percent larger, rye only 
2.4 percent larger, carry-over stocks of these grains 50 percent smaller 
and, in addition, the feeding of grains to livestock has been restricted. 
In considering this apparently unfavorable feed situation, however, it must 
be remembered that during the past 5 years German hog production has changed 
from one based largely on imported grain supplies to one which is dependent 
on domestic potato and other feed production. In the course of the change 
which has occurred in German hog-feeding practices, farmers have learned 
to use feeds which would not have been considered 5 years ago. Siloed feeds, 
processed roots, etc., have come into more general use. An example of what 
German farmers can do in utilizing other feeds is shown by the way in which 
they have carried the large number of hogs reported by the June census 
through the summer of 1936 and avoided liquidating the hogs in a half- 
finished condition. Nevertheless, with the marked increase in hog numbers 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



597 



THE HOG MD FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE, CONT'D 

without a comparable increase in feed supplies, it is reasonable to expect 
that another feed shortage will occur next spring unless feed imports are 
increased. As long as hog numbers are kept at or near present levels and 
minimum slaughter weights are retained, it is likely that Germany will be 
faced with feed shortages each summer, at least until a series of bumper- 
crop years permits the accumulation of stocks of feed grains or the prac- 
tice of siloing potatoes becomes general enough to provide adequate summer 
feed supplies. Farmers are being encouraged to silo feeds and also to 
limit their hog production to the number which can be maintained on their 
own feed production. 

Ma rketings and slaughter 

Since German hog production has become dependent on domestic potato 
and other feed supplies, changes have also occurred in marketings. More 
time is being required to fatten hogs than was the case when imported grains 
were of more importance in hog-feeding operations. Marketings this fall 
are likely to be further delayed by the trend toward fat-hog production, 
which is being encouraged by price spreads between hog classes. In general, 
the fixed prices for hogs .are also tending to increase winter marketings, 
when feeds for hogs are plentiful, and decrease marketings in the summer 
months, when fattening feeds are more or less exhausted. It is reported 
that consideration is being given to changes in fixed prices on a seasonal 
basis in order to bring about a more desirable distribution of marketings. 

During the summer of 1935 the seasonal decline in marketings was 
accentuated and brought to new low levels by short feed supplies and the 
regulation which prohibits slaughter of hogs weighing less than 180 pounds. 
The June census had shown an increase of 4 percent over the average 1931-1935 
June number of slaughter hogs over 6 months of age, but June-August inspected 
slaughter was 5 percent lower than the average of June-Augast slaughter for 
the period 1931-1935. August inspected -slaughter reached the lowest level 
for any single month since September 1935. See table, page 606. 

The accumulation of slaughter hogs on farms in semi-finished condition 
during the past summer points to heavy slaughter during the last 2 months 
of this year. In fact, slaughter in these months is expected to reach such 
proportions that, even, with the shortage in beef supplies, it will be diffi- 
cult to move the pork in consumption channels at the relatively high fixed 
prices. Since the fixed prices preclude storage of the pork by private 
interests, it is expected that Government market-supporting purchases will 
be necessary. There is precedent for such a procedure in the Government 
purchases of 1934 and in June 1936, and reserve stocks of meat will be cf 
considerable advantage to Germany in future periods of short supplies. 

Average slaughter weights reported by large slaughterhouses have de- 
clined seasonally during the summer months, but price spreads between classes 



598 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, Ho. 20 



THE HOG AND PAT SITUATION IN EUROPE, CONT'D 

have been sufficient to maintain slaughter weights at higher levels than 
last year. The hog-potato price rati.) encourages feeding to heavy weights, 
and unless the feed situation prompts changes in the marketing regulations 
which will divert production from fat hogs toward meat hogs, slaughter 
weights during the coming winter months should remain at high levels. 

Imports 

During the recent period of reduced hog marketings, imports of live 
hogs from Denmark, Poland, Hungary, and Sweden have been increased. When 
domestic marketings increase, Germany will not have such great need foy 
imported pork, but the trade policy and the fat situation are such that 
imports, particularly imports of live fat hogs, carcasses, fat sides, and 
lard, will continue as high as current clearing balances and other con- 
tingencies will permit. It is not improbable, however, that with reduced- 
exports of lard from the United States to England, that country will, with 
free exchange, attract fats which otherwise might come to Germany, and 
that Czechoslovakia, with less tension in her currency situation and pros- 
pective favorable effects of the recent devaluation, will also have an 
advantage over Germany in securing supplies through free currency purchases 
or clearing-trade channels. 

Cattle situation 

A seasonal increase in cattle marketings, brought on by the approach 
of winter and the necessity of housing cattle, has permitted the authorities 
to increase cattle slaughter contingents to 80 percent of base-period slaugh- 
ter. Liquidation of calves, due to the fact that slaughter and prices were 
not regulated while those of other livestock were, attained such proportions 
that, effective October 1, the authorities have decreed maximum prices for 
calves by classes and limited quarterly slaughter to 80 percent of comparable 
slaughter during the period July 1, 1935, to June 27, 1936. This move is 
expected to hasten the restoration of German cattle numbers, but in view of 
the probable composition of cattle stocks for the next 2 years, it is likely 
that marked increases in the production of German cattle herds will not 
occur for some time. 

M eat consumption 

Germany's supplies of meat available for consumption continued to 
decline through the first 8 months of 193 6, a new low of 6.35 pounds per 
capita being reached in August. Limited pork supplies have been the prin- 
cipal cause of the decrease. September and October supplies will likely be ■ 
low, but November and December hog slaughter should bring about considerable 
improvement in the supply situation during those months. 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



599 



THE HOG AMD FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE , CONT'D 

Fat situation 

Reduced hog slaughter daring the summer and early fall months of 
1936 resulted in a marked reduction in fat supplies but did not precipitate 
such an acute shortage as did the reduced slaughter of 1935. Reserve 
stocks of butter and lard, built up from imports, were sufficient to per- 
mit increased releases as soon as the pork shortage was felt, but the re- 
leases did not bring available supplies fully up to demand requirements. 
Effective October 1, cream production was reduced by regulation to 25 per- 
cent of September production and the fat content of cheese limited to 
20 percent. Supplies of cheap margarine have been insufficient to meet 
demand. 

Should domestic hog slaughter during the winter attain the propor- 
tions indicated by the September hog numbers, it is probable that domestic 
lard and pork-fat supplies will exceed those of any previous winter. While 
domestic butter production in 1936 is estimated to be slightly higher than 
in 1935, production during the coming winter will likely be slightly smaller 
than last winter. Compared with third-quarter production of margarine, 
fourth-quarter production will be increased, and deliveries of new-catch 
whale oil during the first quarter of 1937 should permit a maintenance of 
the increased output. The foreign exchange situation, however, will likely 
prevent total margarine production during the 6 months October-March from 
equaling comparable production in 1935-36. Imports of butter, lard, and 
fat sides will depend on clearing balances and such other arrangements as 
can be made, but on the whole are expected to be maintained at or near last 
winter's levels. The increase in domestic hog production should be suffi- 
cient to make total fat supplies somewhat larger than those of the past 
winter. High fixed prices for bu.tter, lard, and the better grades of mar- 
garine have increased the demand for cheap margarine, and supplies of the 
latter appear to be the weakest point in the fat situation. 

0,7. echo Slovakia 

Smaller market receipts of domestic cattle and hogs in Czechoslovakia 
during August and September, because of farmer demand for feeder stock as 
well as redaction in numbers, resulted in short moat and fat supplies and 
advancing prices. Supplies of artificial fats were also insufficient to 
meet the demand. Despite improvement in economic conditions in Czecho- 
slovakia, short supplies and high prices worked a severe hardship on a large 
part of the population, particularly the poorer classes, and the Government 
took steps to correct the situation. Hog and fat import quotas have been 
increased monthly since June and moves were made to increase further imports 
of cattle, hogs, and fats from clearing countries. Consideration was also 
given to increasing the contingent for artificial fats (only 17.5 percent 
of the 1936 contingent remained for the last quarter), lowering slaughter 
fees and meat taxes, reducing duties on imported animal fats, extending the 



6 00 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



TEE HOG AMD FAT SITUATION IN EUROPE, CONT'D 

control of the livestock cartel, and adopting Government regulation of pro- 
duction and marketing. Since these matters were given serious consideration 
prior to the devaluation of the Czech crown, it is assumed that the recent 
currency adjustment will aid and speed the materialization of the proposed 
plans. Agricultural organizations, opposing increased imports and the 
lowering of duties, have appealed to farmers to increase their marketings 
of livestock. It is unlikely that measures which may he adopted "by the 
Czech Government will result in any marked increase in the importation of 
American lard. Czechoslovakia has not "been handicapped "by foreign exchange 
prohlorns to any such extent as Germany, "but the foreign trade policy has 
"been one in which clearing countries have "been given preferences, and there 
is no reason to expect any change. It is highly prohahle that competition 
between deficit-fat countries in their efforts to obtain supplies from 
Danubian countries will increase. 

Increased supplies of imported hogs and fats, drawn largely from 
clearing countries, have continued to be the features of the Czech markets . 
Despite the marked increa.se in hog imports, the decline in domestic hog 
supplies has been so great that the quantity of pork available for consump- 
tion during the first half of 1936 has been lower than for the same periods 
in the past 2 years- Beef supplies have shown an even greater reduction 
than pork supplies, and total meat supplies during the first 7 months of 
1936 have been about 5 percent smaller than in the same period in 1935. 
Pork- fat supplies, however, have been larger. In view of the situation 
in Czechoslovakia and clearing countries, it is expected that no great in- 
crease will occur in total meat supplies. By August, the advance in hog 
prices which began in April this year had brought prices equal to the peak 
prices of August 1935. Further advances occurred in September. 

Contrary to expectations, preliminary returns of the July 1 hog 
census shew an increase in total numbers of 5.1 percent when compared with 
July 1935 numbers. It was generally expected that the Government decree 
limiting numbers on individual farms to the numbers which could be kept on 
feed produced on the farm and the high fixed prices for grains which are 
maintained by the grain monopoly would preclude any increase in hog numbers- 
Apparently the meat and fat situation in Czechoslovakia, together with a 
desire to utilize feeds which might otherwise be wasted, has encouraged 
farmers to increase hog operations, while preliminary returns show July 
numbers to be larger than last year, they are 18. G percent smaller than in 
July 1934 and the seasonal increase between January 1, 1936, and July 1, 
1935, is much less than the average comparable increase for the period 
1932-1935. Under present conditions further marked expansion is not to be 
expected. 

Switzer land 

Reduced hog numbers in Switzerland and an increa.se in direct sales 
by producers were reflected in a reduction of 13 percent in receipts at 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



501 



THE HOG AND FAT SITUATION IN EIB0FS, CONT'D 

markets during the first 6 months of this year when compared with receipts 
during the first half of last year. A continuation of the previously re- 
ported hardening price tendency during the summer encouraged farmers to hold 
hogs and, in turn, caused the authorities to fear excessive prices to con- 
sumers and the accumulation of a. fat-hog surplus. Farmers were advised to 
reduce their holdings, hut further sharp price advances were recorded in 
September. The lard tariff was reduced from 40 to 20 francs per 100 kilo- 
grams (4.2 to 2.1 cents per pound at current rate of exchange) in July and 
permits to import 242,500 pounds of American lard were granted. 

Soviet Union 

Preliminary and partial returns of the July 1, 1936, hog census 
indicate a further sharp increase in hog numbers in the Soviet Union. It 
is reported that enumerations in approximately 52 percent of the territory 
show an increase of about 50 percent, and if such an increase is representa- 
tive, Russia's hog population numbered about 33,800,000 on July 1, 1933. 
The Second live-Year Plan calls for a total of 31,500,000 on January 1, 1937. 
During the years for which data, are available, heavy slaughter in the last 
half of the yea.r resulted in a seasons,! decline in hog numbers between July 
and December, except in 1935 when good crops and Government efforts to ex- 
pand hog numbers by distributing hogs among peasants and permitting them 
to increase their sow holdings reversed the usual seasonal trend. However, 
the reduced feed-crop outturn this year and the liquidation and slaughter 
presumably necessary to adjust hog numbers to feed supplies may bring about 
a decline during the last half of this year. 



HOGS: Numbers in specified European countries, 1935 and 1936 



Country : 


1935 : 


1 


936 














Number 


Da 


.te 


Numb er : 


Date 


Germany 


Sept . 


4 


22,683, 


551 


Sept. 


4 


25,095,235 


D enmark 


Aug . 


24 ; 


3,166 


000 


Aug. 


39 


3,713,000 


Czechoslovakia 


July 


1 


2,900. 


193 


July 


1 


a/3,163,000 


Netherlands 


Auguc 


-1- 


1,629, 


377 


August 




a/l, 790,743 


Hungary 






3,175, 


822 


April 




2,554,523 
b/ 271,030 


Norway 


Apr . 


1 


276, 


843 


Apr. 




Austria 


June 


1 


65, 


729 


June 


i ; 


S3, 083 


Switzerland 


Apr . 


20 


1,033, 


379 


Apr. 


31 : 


87 5, 237 


Yugoslavia 


Jan. 


1 


3,791, 


592 


Jan . 


i ; 


2,925,908 


Poland 


June 


30 


6,723, 


000 


June 


30 ; 


7,053,000 


England and TCales 


June 




• 3,815, 


400 


June 




3,301,100 


Scotland 


June 




: 260. 


200 


June 




236,400 


Northern Ireland 


June 




j 457, 


900 


June 




521,300 


Irish Free State 


• June 




: 1,088, 


000 


June 




1,010,000 



a/ Preliminary. . b/ Hog census in eight important hog-producing provinces. 



602 Foreign Crops and Markets 

\. _ - THE HOC- AND FAT SITUATION IIT EUROPE, CONT'D 
HOGS: . JNumbers in Denmark and Germany, fall 1936, with comparison 



Vol.33, No. 20 



• : ' Date: . ;. , 


T T v-i /-s /~~ is* *\? 

uncer ( ( 


pounds 


Sows 


Total 


\ Suckling 


: Others 


: In 


farrow 


Total 




■ Thousands 


'Tnousancis 


"Thousands 


Thousands 


n- 

Thousands 
















Pinr 1 A 1 077' 








244 


405 




Oct. 15, 1934 ... 


720 


j 734 




215 


333 


3,108 






i ( ■— <0 • 




259 


386 


3 , loo 


Oct . 5, 1935 . . . 


860 


792 




264 


405 


3,295 


Aug. 29, 1936 . . . 


1,006 


947 




255 


438 


3,718 




Under 


8 weeks to 


Sows 




GERMANY: a/ 


8 weeks • 


6 months 


In 


farrow 


Total 


Total 














Sept. 1, 1932 . . . 


6,326 ; 


10,341 




1,087 


2,076 


24,176 


Sept. 4, 1934 . . . 


6,348 j 


10,595 . 




997 


1,954 


25, 047 


Sept . 4, 1935 . . . 


5,851 ! 


9, 583 




1,062 


1,939 


22,634 


Sept. 4, 1936 ... 


5,624 


11,042 ; 




1,165 


2,158 


25,895 



Compiled from caoles from Agricultural Commissioner H. E. Reed at Berlin 
and official sources. 

a/ Excluding the Saar. No comparable data available for 1933. 

UNITED KINGDOM': Total cured pork allocations, Sept. 1-Dec. 31, 1933, 
rad to the United States. Jan. 1-Dec . 31, 1935 



Country 



Total allocati ons , Sept .1-Dec . 31 



; Percentage^ 
■ - share of j 
: total 


Allocat 


ions 


' Jan 
Month 


.1-Dec. 31, 

' Allocation 

d 


1935 

• Imports 

i u—-. 




Hundred- 


1,000 




: 1,000 


. 1,000 


j Per cent . 


weight 


pounds 


1935 


pounds 


pounds 


I 63.50 : 


1,013,130 


114,035 


Jan. 


3,938 


2,324 


: 9.50 : 


152,326 


17,061 


Feb. 


3,703 


2,148 


: 7.95 : 


127,473 


14,277 


Mar . 


4,052 


2,597 


: 4.70 ; 


75,361 


3,441 


Apr. 


3,862 


2,354 


i 2.95 : 


47,301 


5,297 


May- 


4,146 


3,395 


: .75 : 


12,026 


1,347 


June 


4,014 


5,031 


: .40 • 


6,414 


718 


July 


4,145 


5 , 375 


: . .70 : 


11, 224 


1,257 


Aug. 


4,146 


5,247 


! .85 | 


13,629 


1,526 


Sept. 


3,636 


1,380 


: .70 ; 


11,224 


1,257 


Oct. • 


3, 636 




; oj 8.00 i 


cj 128,275 


c/l4,367 


(Nov. 


3,637) 










(Dec. 


3.637) 




; 100.00 ; 


1,503,433 


179,584 




45,553 





Allocations to United States 



Denmark . . . 
Netherlands 
Poland . . 
Sweden . . 
Lithuania 
Estonia . 
Finland . 
Latvia . . 
U-S.S.R. 
Argentina 
United States 



Total 



Compiled from official sources. Figures in parentheses are allocations for 
the first 2 months of the 1936-37 season, a/ Pinal figures with all adjust* 
ments made. b/ Not adjusted for reexports, oj Plus 0.1 percent of total to 
allow for adjustments in connection with imports through Canada. 



November 16, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 603 
TKF HOG AND FAT SITUATION IN EDHOPB, CONT'D 

UNITED KINGDOM: Total bacon imports, by months, 1928-29 to 1935-36 

- . .. „, „ . , -■ , ■ . . „ .. , rilT ■ .. , .1 ,,, rt f-, I-.- - , ■ -„ ■ -w.,,r»-.. ll ... — «. — — .. ****** *B W4 ^H 



Month 


; 1928-29 


j 1929-30 


\ 1930-31 


: 1931-32 


; 1932-.33 


1933-34 


1934-35 


1935-36 




j 1 , 000 


i 1,000 


; 1,000 


i 1,000 


1,000 


, 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




! pounds 


■ pounds 


pounds 


; pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


Oct 


82,378 


i 72,402 


1 95,809 


109,051 


114,510 


63,272 


65,537 


56,170 


Nov, , . . . 


79 , 297 


: 74,868 


86,316 


105,372 


114,458 


81,117 


66,325 


61 , 147 


De c . > . . , 


76,771 


65 , 503 


112,267 


109,857 


; 92,817 


66,612 


68,370 


64,374 


Jan 


68 , 092 


74,801 


95,273 


' 101,159 


96,602 


72 . 309 


70,773 


59,628 


Feb. . . . . 


66,612 


73,721 


99 , 645 


. 112,538 


78 , 231 


68 , 345 


60,415 


56,9 62 


Mar ..... 


68,923 


84,631 


■93,406 


125,818 


95 , 152 


72,271 


62,878 


62,750 


Apr. .... 


73 , 126 


75,09 6 


9.9,464 


108,150 


85,173 


75,675 


66, 651 


61,392 


May 


87,645 


84, 615 


108,136 


• 89,052 


92 , 804 


79,089 


67,155 


60,040 


June 


71 , 694 


83,277 


109,080 


ill , 194 


91,029 


70 , 351 


62,070 


oO , 555 


July. 


80 , 360 ' 


85,457 


105, oQ7 


102,004 


87,203 


76,298; 


68,519 


64,001 


Aug. . . . ,: 


82 , 290 : 


84,756: 


106,567 


104,395 


83,361 


70,528. 


69,308 


64 , 879 


Sept. . . ,; 


73,505. 


86,206! 


105.978 


101.571 


83,069 


64 . 943 


64,237 


57.091 


Total j 


933,093: 


967,435; 


1,217,548! 


1,260,161; 


1,114,209: 


880,810: 


792.239 


730,989 



Compiled from Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom. 

UNITED KINGDOM; Total ham imports, by months, 1928-29 to 1935-36 



Month 


1925-29 


1929-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1932-33 


; 1933-34 


,1934-35 


: 1935-36 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


; 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 




pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


Oct. , .t. 


6,454 


6,105 


5,792 


7,217 


7,497 


' 6,992 


: 5,419 


4,797 


Nov : 


6,782 


8,125 


5,755 


7,550 


7,998 


7,932 


; 5,887 


5,074 


Dec 


7,339 


9,347 


.1Q.,111 


6,596 


6,578 


6,155 


o , 951 


; 7,395 


J an ..... ■ 


8,788 


7,920 


7,101 


4,602 


7,100 


4,743 


' 5,012 


1 4 , 839 


Feb : 


6 j 232 


7,969 


6,507 


5,145 


5,556 


4,233 


. 5,223 


5,011 


Mar 


6, 828 


8,601 


5,337 


6,530 




7,288 


' 5 , 623 


'5,456- 


Apr \ 


8,981 


9,539 


7,597 


5,764 


7,874 


7,542 


: 7,119 


• 4,833 


fey ; 


14,136 


12,298 


9 , 204 


9 , 664 


10,737 


7,234 


7,378 


! 7,202 


June .... 


: 10,499 


10,983 


9, 773 


: 8,466 


9,207 


7,021 


8,408 


6,745 


July. . . , 


12,042 


14,391 


11,165 


i 11,661 


13,566 


11,984 


8,586 


9,463 


Aug 


12,073 


12,024 


7,429 


9,091 


8,489 


9,357 


6,072 


8,241 


Sept. . . . 


6,073 


7,236 


5 , 613 


6,978 


9,267 


4,962 


5,219 


4,125 


Total 


110,257 


116,558 


: 91,384 


91,265' 


99,852 


85,443. 


75,897 


75,161 



Compiled from Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom. 



604 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, 3STo . 20 

THE HOG AND FAT SITUATION IN 3UR0FS, CONT'D 
UNITED KINGDOM: Total lard imports, by months, 1928-29 to 1935-36 



Month H928-29 ; 1929-30: 1930-31; 1931-32'. 1932-33; 1933-34 1934-35i 1935-36 



•1,000 : i,ooc ■ 1,000 ; 1,000 i 1,000 j 1,000: 1,000 j 1,000 

• pounds 1 pounds ■ p ound s '■ pounds j pound s j pounds ! p_ounds_ j p ounds 

Oct j 18,079.' 21,844 1 22 , 89? i 1? , 329 ; 19 , 799 125,407:26,932 j 12,161 

Nov. : 21,551; 24,004 I 27,751 I 19,234 j 21,305 i 23,301 • 22,582 ; 12,700 

Dec j 17,48^-27,180 : 27,270 : 21,276 -17,658 : 25 , 855 \ 17, 365 j 10,096 

Jan \ 35,9231 27,559 j 21,459 ; 28,188 ■ 24,381 ; 34,945 j 15,651 j 15,621- 

Feb : 29,752: 25 ; 137 ; 32,576 j 37,323 .j 31,490 j 26,975 j 16,921 j 16, 302- 

Mar : 22,234: 24,810 \ 26,608 j 31,248 \ 31,269 \ 23,568 I 19,725 j 12, 689- 

Apr : 21, 612| 18,213 ; 25 , 275 j 11 , 805 122,788 j 22 , 984 ; 14,508 1 17,758. 

May ; 26,479; 20.772 j 23,771 120,565 124,305 134,335 • 16,009 "12,261 

June.......: 20,4981 21,078 127,586 125,890 125,026 139,695 \ 13,628 ; 15,714 

July I 25,977 ; 31,601 1 28,538 i 22,221 ; 28,675 ; 22,564 \ 16,374 \ 15,150 

Aug.. : 21,204:20,433 125,001 ; 16,477 : 31,403 ; 24,151 115,526 112,167 

Sep t ■ 16,899: 12,9 76 j 17,022 118 ,556 129,484 119,200; 9,063 j 11,262 

Total....; 277, 68 8j2 75, 647 {305,755 £70,112 {307,581 1322,9 8 0 204,284 163,861 



Compiled from Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom. 

UNITED KINGDOM; Lard imports from the United States, by months, 









1928-29 


to 1935- 


36 








Month 


1928-29 


j 1929-30 


1930-31 


1931-32 


1932-33 


1933-34 


1 1934-35 


; 1935-36 




1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 4 


< 1,000 




pounds 


: pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


'• pounds 


Oct 


15,071 


j 19,772 


19,932 


12,878 


18,097 


19,645 


23,782 


; 733 


Nov. 


19,148 


j 20,636 


24,214 


14,461 


19,607 


19 , 665 


20,080 


j 4,470 


Dec 


15 , 324 


j 23 s 386 


23,267 


17,768 


16,628 


24,536 


13,686 


i 3,809 


Jan 


34,420 


i 24,644 


19,092 


25,623 


23,245 


32,950 


10,883 


' 7,041 


Feb 


26,058 


1 22,241 


27, 720 


23,282 


30,317 


26,116 


12,467 


1 5,946 


Mar 


17,965 


• 23,222 


24,680 


23,135 


29 , 132 


22,210 


11,434 


1 4,109 


Apr 


18,899 


1 16,665 


22,295 


9,516 


20,941 


21,767 


6,271 


: 8,982 


May 


22,687 


j 18,561 


13,518 


17,956 


20,270 


33,216 


5,867 


4,833 


June ...... 


16,719 


: 15 , 790 


20,926 


22,850 


19,655 


38,460 


4,304 


6,276 


July 


21,988 


i 27,637 


21,699 


19,651 


24,358 


21 , 347 


4,363 


5,95c 


Aug 


17,611 


: 17,123 


19,020 


■ 13,503 


24,605 


20,570 


706 j 


2,561 


Sept 


12,553 


': 10,024 


12,255 


15,628 


24,406 


17,752 


436 i 


3,285_ 


Total. . . . 


238,443 


240,153 


253,618 


226,451 


271,271 j 


298,234 j 


114,279 | 


58,003 



Compiled from Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom. 



November 16, 1936 Foreign Crops and Markets 605 

THE HOG MD EAT SITUATION III EUROPE , CONT'D 



PORK, CHILLED OR FROZEN: Imports into the United Kingdom, "by countries, 
____________ 1932- 1935, January- September 193 5,193 6 



Country 


1932 


1933 


1934 


1935 


1935 


1936 




1 , 000 
pounds 


1 , 000 
pounds 


1,000 
•pounds 


1,000 
pounds 


1,000 
pounds 


1 , 000 
pounds 


Australia 

New Zealand .... 
u Tjiier jji -Lifi sn . • 


D , L y4t 
14,688 

CJ , (G±u 


ri 1-7 A r? 

( , 6Q0 
31,141 

CJ , llo 


46,399 
'z oar 


1 0 , '±o'± 

54,917 


"I <7 Q OA 

± 0 , y y - 
44,892 

010 


01 n?^ 
55,546 

_ u 


Total British 


22,000 


40,597 


58 , 677' 


72 , 209 


59,504 


77,057 


United States . . 

Argentina 

Other foreign . . 


3,693 
12,192 

309 


9,358 
13 , 594 
1,202 


32,521 
31,083 
1,526 


8,633 
20,926 
737 


7,496 
15,115 
523 


439 
15,051 
446 


Total foreign 


16,194 


29,154 


65,130 


30,296 


23,139 


15,936 


Total ...... 


33 , 194 


69,751 


123,807 


102,505 


82,643 


92 993 



Compiled from Trade and Navigation of the United Kingdom. 



HOGS MD PORK PRODUCTS: Indices of foreign supplies and demand, 
. Oct ober-Septem be r 193 5- 36, with compa ris ons 



Country and item 


Average 
1909-10 

to 
1913-14 


Average 
1924-25 

to 
1928-29 


1932-33 


1933-34 


1934-35 


1935-36 


UNITED KINGDOM: 
Sapplies, 
dome stic, fresh 
pork, London . 
Imports- 
Bacon- 

Denmark 

Irish Eree 
State 


1,000 
pounds 

246 , 250 

134,037 
42,943 
43,800 


1 , 000 
-pounds 

54 , 639 

502,406 

54 347 
104,767' 

76,357 
164,34] 


1 , 000 
pounds 

74,440 

692 , 371 

21,330 
6,074- 
39,744 
354,028 


1 , 000 
pounds 

66,057 

496,908 

36,469 
5,133 
96,253 
24 6,033 


1 , 000 

pounds 

75,221 

440 , 241 

49,533 
2,839 
103,934 
195,542 


1 , 000 

T)Ounds 

85,480 

339,512 

55,567 
1 , 992 
105,308 
170 , 611 


United States 

Canada 

Others 

Total 

Ham, total . . . 

Lard, total 


517,035 


902,218 


1,114,209 


380,810 


792,239 


730,989 


96, 675 


127,520 


99,852 


85,443 


75,897 


75,181 


210,237 


267,076 


307,581 


322,980 


204,284 


163,881 



Continued - 



606 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 20 

THE HOG AM) PAT SITUATION IN EUROPE , CONT'D 



HOGS AND PORK PRODUCTS: Indices of foreign supplies and demand, 
Octob er- Sept em ber 1935-36, with, comparisons, cont'd 





! Average 


Average 










Country and item 


i 1909-10 


1924-25 


1952-33 


1933-34 


1954-35 


1935-36 


■ 4-<-\ 

i to 














191o~i4 


19,s 3-^9 












; 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


DENMARK: 


: pound s 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


Exports- 















Baco n 




500 , 948 


712,127 


■ 519,335 


449 , 926 


399 ,371 


GERMANY : 














Production- 


Thousands 


Thousands 


Thous ands 


'Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands 


Hog receipts 















1/1 —.'4 J- * ~ 

14 cities . . . 




3 , 2!§ < 




3 , 531 


3 120 




Hog slaughter 














36 centers .. 


4 r 430 


4,009 


4 , 20 6 


4,659 


4 , 259 






i nnn 


i nnn 
x , uuu 


i nnn 


i nnn 


X , U'JU 


i noo 


Import s- 


pounds 


pounds ' 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


Bacon, total .. 


O "70 Q 
id, /<d3 


~l £. POD ' 

lo , ovc 




* 1 AO O 




/O^t , <J OX 


Lard, to tal . . . 


198 , 843 


217,286 


~l nn r*1 r~7 f 

189 , 736 


114,261 


- 55, 767 


Q7 Pi C7 


P K "NT A T\ A i 


Ihousands 


Thousands • 


Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands 


i no us anas 


Slaughter— 














Hogs , inspected 


x , DO ( 


2 , obo 


2 , r 4o 




o fir o 


O , XO D 


uu i i-tii) b iA l^o : 














o^au^h i. or- 














Hogs , inspected 


rr "1 /• / /I 


! 'bo 






•TO ^ PQ 


npp 




1 , U'JU 


l , UUU ; 


1 , UUU 


1 , JWW 


i nnn 


i nnn 


Bacon- 


pounds 


■pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


po UJl xi> 




United Kingdom 


1 'XPi 7 r -;7 
J-oU , { o < 


5 I ft f J 


O , UOJ 




X | »J iA- 


1 154 


Germany ...... 


1 /'Q'7 




T P 5A 

1 , <j Oft 




n 




vyU.Oa •»•»»»... 


O f X-tTiO i 


on ape ; 


, XQ<M 




4 390 


1 , 478 


To tal . 


181,314; 


140,742 | 


i7,syo 


| 22,661 


7,727 


3,980 


HS&a; .shoulders 














United Kingdom 


1-40,392 


140,761 : 


67,425 


59,121 


49,355 


39,521 




163,966, 


167,76 6: 


76,760 


63 , 409 


58,357 


45,071 


Lard- 














United Kingdom 


169. 138 


225,342: 


279,507 


310,166 


97,595 


61,258 


Germany ...... 


"i t: 7 7PO! 


192,304: 


155,595 


58,404 


2,513 


6,696 




33,426- 


80,361 : 


10,663 


20,338 


29.437 


25,905 


Netherlands . . 


36,408; 


40,429 ; 


36,284 


20,442 


10 


64 




468,416 


722,124' 


566,285 


520,611 


140,717 


100,406 



Compiled from official sources. 



November 16, 1936 

UNITED STATES: 



Foreign Crops and Markets 

Exports of principal agricultural products, 
July- September , 1935.'. and 1936 i . 



607 



Commodity exported 



: Unit 



July- Sept ember 



Quantity 



1935 



1936 



Value 



1935 



1936 







,1,000." 


\ .1,000 


^Thousands 


Thousands 


dollars 


i dollars 


1 


a/ 


63 


41 


! # 


a/ 


4 


• . 2 


: l 


1 


; 160 


i. ' . • 1^0 


i l 


'• a/ 


114 


j . '!'.. 33 


: • 244 


207 


>-< : 61 .'. 


: 70 


: 272. 


j ' 273 


•59 "■ 


68 




'• 1 4 


i ^ 

lO 


!.■'■ it 

■ IX 


: 797 


349 


89 


' ' 41 

k t:X 


;. ' boo 


; . 985 


174 


: . 198 


j 5,546 


I 6,850 


371 


518 


• ^77 

i Oft 




X DO 


' . OA O 


• 457 


' 39 ? 


1 40 


iin 


• 1 , 435 


: 1,014 


255 


158 


: 1,611 


3,148 


158 


247 


' 362 


' 412 


121 


1 21 


I 3.408 


4,574 


534 


526 


: 3 


69 


1 


9 


O rj r7 

: boo 


40 o 


142 


72 


■ 836 


477 


143 


81 


; 1,428 


1,548 


262 


258 


j 13,759 


12,109 


2,704 


2, 655 


: 124 


223 


25 


32 


: 1,582 


3,570 


215 


400 


: 2,167 


1,641 


784 


581 


: 19,906 


19,568 


4,133 


4,007 


i 124 


102 


24 


21 


j 520 


361 


111 


80 


• 243 


276 


62 


77 


j 345 


295 


80 


■ 62 


j ; 3,675 


' 4,348 


457 


568 


• 290 


558 


76 


91 


: 28,511 


30,032 


5,477 


5,432 


: 37 


16 : 


56 


30 


: 6,875 


6,925 : 


1 , 482 ' 


1,585 



ANIMALS. aND ANIMAL PRODUCTS: : 
Animals, live; : 

Cattle j No. 

. Hogs No. 

Horses ■ No. 

Mules, asses, and burros '• No. 

Dairy product s; : 

Butter ; Lb. 

Cheese ■ Lb. 

Milk- j 

Eresh and sterilized ....... • G-al. 

Condensed | Lb. 

Dried Lb. 

Evaporated : Lb. 

Infants' foods , malted, etc. . .: Lb. 

Eggs in the shell j Doz. 

Meats and meat products ; \ 
Beef and veal- '. 

Eresh or frozen . . ,: Lb. 

Pickled or cured • Lb. 

Canned beef, incl. corned...: Lb. 

Total beef and veal : Lb. 

: Park- j 

Carcasses, fresh ; Lb. 

Loins and other fresh I Lb. 

Total fresh pork ; Lb. 

Bacon • Lb. 

Hams and shoulders • Lb. 

Sides, Cumber. & Wiltshire. .. • Lb. 

Pickled or salted : Lb. 

Canned j Lb. 

Total pork j Lb. 

Mutton and lamb : Lb. 

Poultry and game, fresh : Lb. 

Sausage- | 

Canned I Lb. 

Other • Lb. 

Other meats- ; 

Eresh, frozen, or cured ! Lb. 

Canned, incl. canned : 

poultry ■ Lb. 

Total meats • Lb. 

Meat extracts and bouillon I 

cubes ; Lb. 

Sausage casings : Lb.. 



Continued - 



608 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



UNITED STATES: Exports of principal agricultural products, 
^ July- Sept ember, 1935 and 1936, cont'd 



July- S ep t emb e r 



Commodity exported 


Unit 


Quantity 


Value 




' 1935 


1936 


1935 , 


1936 


ANIMALS AND ANIMAL PROD. CONT'D: 








1,000 ■ 


1,000 


Oils and fats, animal: 




Thousands 


Thousands 


dollars' ' 


dollars 




Lb. 


9,836 


21, 382 


' 1,423 '; 


' " ' '2,528 


Lard, neutral 


Lb. 


139 j 


168 


21 j 


21 


Oleo oil 


Lb. 


1,850 


2,484 


' 214 


224 




Lb. 


861 


" 1 , 238 


99 : 


' 106 


Stearins and fatty acids 


Lb. 


563 


856 


51 


64 


Tallow 


Lb, 


199 


680 


18 • 


45 


Other animal oils and fats .... 


Lb. 


3.727 


2,587 


•271 : 


■ • 183 


Total oils and fats 


Lb. 


17,175 


29,395 


2,097 


3,171 


VEGETABLE PRODUCTS: 












Cotton, unmfd. (Bales of 500 lb.) 














Bale 


; 1,061 


950 


• 66,253 


60,025 




Bale 


- 56 


54 - 


•1,-350 


1,344 


Eruits : 












Apple s- 














Bskt. 


438 . 


53 


966 


88 




Box 


926 


710 


1,675 


1,117 




Bbl. 


■209 


■28 


930 


100 




Lb. 


3,369 


• ■ 4-, 611 


293 • 


399 




Lb. 


12,599 


18,157 


1,755 


2,274 


Grapefruit 


Box 


261 


■ ■ • ■ 98 


588 


284 




Box 


2,010 


930 


4,860 


2,829 




Lb. 


42,109 


. - 60,05-4 


1,888 


2,390 




Lb. 


2 6, -220 


44,396 


1,172 


2,199 




Lb . 


20,716 


• -30,853 


936 


1 , 646 




Lb. 


96,197 


■ 84,637 


7,134 • 


• ■ 7,709 


Nuts : 














Lb . 


- 38 


625 


^ 17 


103 


XtT T _L _ 


Lb . 


2,927 


- 8,747 ■ 


310 


824 


Grains, flour and meal: 












"RstI pv p "vpI n rii tip* f 1 out 


Bu. 


■ 3,073 


■ ■ 3,147 • 


• • 1, 679 


2, 202 


Buckwheat, excluding flour ... 


Bu. 




i 

..... a;/ . . 




a/ 


Corn, including cornmeal : . . . . 


Bu. 


165 


217 


213 


247 




Bu. 


1 11 : 


7 


17 


9 


Oats, including oatmeal 


Bu. 


327 




666 


OD < 


xiice, inc.LUCu.ng id. cur, meaj. 














Lb. 


18,038 


666 


514 


23 


Rye, excluding flour 


Bu.- 


4 


•• "a/ 


-.4 • 


a/ 




Bu. 


88 


735 


• 67 


712 


Wheat flour- 














Bbl. 


232 ; 


: ' 364 " 


1,015 


1,624 




Bbl. 


565 


■ 642 


2,552 


3,079 


Total wheat flour 


Bbl. 


797 


1 , 00 6" ■ 


' ' 3,567 . 


4,703 




Bu. 


3,833 


.' " 5', 461 ' 


" ' 3,634 1 


5,415 



Continued - 



November 16, 1956 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



609 



UNITED STATES: 



Exports of principal agricultural products, 
July- Sept ember, 1935 and 1936, cont'd 



Commodity exported 



VEGETABLE PRODUCTS, C0HT 'D: 
Oilseed products: 

Cottonseed cake and meal 
Linseed cake and meal . . 
Cottonseed oil, crude .. 
Cottonseed oil, refined 
Sugar (2,000 lbs.) 

Bright flue- cured 

Burley 

Dark fired Ky. & Tenness 

Dark Virginia 

Maryland and Ohio export 
G-reen River (pryor) 

One- sucker leaf 

Cigar leaf 

Black fat, water baler a 

dark African 

Peri que 

Total leaf tobacco ... 
Tobacco stems, trimmings a 

s crap 

Vegetables : 



Beans, dried 

Peas, dried 

Onions 

Potatoes, white ... 

Vegetables, canned 
Misc. vegetable pr oducts; 

Drugs, herbs, roots, etc 

Glucose 

Hops 

Starch, corn 

TOTAL PRINCIPAL AGRICULTURAL 
PRODUCTS 



TOTAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS 
TOTAL EXPORTS, ALL COMMODITIES 



Unit 



Ju ly- S ep t emb e r 



Quantity 





1935 


1956 


1935 


1936 








1.000 


1 000 




Thousands 


Thousands 


dollars 


dollars 


ton 1 


1 


1 


34 


35 


ton ; 


52 


34 


1,161 


961 


Lb. ' 


19 


34 


2 


4 


Lb. 


1,139 


749 


133 


84 


x uri ■ 


o o 


] 9 

J- U 


1 614 


788 


Lb. 


71,278 


76,555 


33,524 


30,150 


Lb. 


1,862 


2,181 


431 


385 


Lb. 


8,996 


5, 926 


1 , 349 


9oU 


Lb. 


2,135 


2,284 


590 


\ 549 


Lb. 


994 


789 


285 


124 


Lb. 


397 


1,190 


40 


92 


Lb. 


609 


220 


51 


23 


Lb. 


145 


126 


107 


82 


Lb. 


2,905 


2,476 


478 


453 


Lb. 


13 


34 


5 


11 


Lb. 


89,534 


92,761 


36,860 


52,799 


Lb. 


765 


3,128 


17 


98 


Lb. 


1,418 


1,692 


58 


62 


Lb. 


606 


1,236 


31 


: 40 


Lb. 


11,738 


13 , 247 


198 


: 193 


Lb. 


46,200 


24,520 


488 


; 422 


Lb. 


9, 804 


11,035 


1,036 


: 1,140 


Lb. 


1,349 


1,631 


301 


: 582 


Lb. 


5,757 


6, 677 


152 


: 187 


Lb. 


288 


30 


; 45 


! 147 


Lb. 


9,268 


9,485 


319 


; 322 








• 149,495 


: 141,140 








' 158,613 


152,635 








; 535,588 


: 569,209 



Value 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
a/ Less than 500. 

b/ Includes paddy in terms of cleaned. 



610 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



UNITED STATES: Export quantity of specified agricultural products, 
January- Sept ember, 1935 and 1936, and September, 1935 and 1936 



Commodity 



Unit 


January- 


September 


September 


1935 


1936 


1935 


i 1936 




Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands' Thousands 


Lb. 
Lb. 
Lb. 


5,150 
44,302 

77,838 


3,262 
34,116 
81,890 


334 
2,197 
1,515 


; 404 
; 2,122 
j 7,856 


Bu. . 
Bu. 


4,258 
.156 


6,711 

490 


1,950 

2 


i 1,005 

: 4 


Lb. 
Lb. 


106,904 

488 . 


9 ,652 

. 54 


8,890 
100 


: no 
; 22 




156 


882 


14 


i 487 


Bbl. . 


741 


763 


97 


j 168 


Bu. 
Lb. ■ 

Box .. 


6,166 
54,744 
4,746 
. 873 


5,553 
.74,068 
3 , 649 

805 


1,349 

23,375 
433 

49 


; 482 
i 26,998 
1 207 
j 45 


Lb. 

Lb. 

Lb. . ■ 

Lb. 

Lb. 


• 14,462 
17,831 
87,213 
50,914 
44,349 


. 13,556 
22,425 
125,300 
60,452 
48 ,253. 


6,765 
9,617 

11,965 


', p Q04 
j 4 , 942 
20,445 

'• T A OOP 

'•' 18,354 


Lb. 


145, 831 


184,271 


45,894 


42,181 


Lb. 
Lb. 


42,199 
30,214 


42,492 
31,264 


2,398 
3 , 079 


1,495 

2,650 


Lb. 


218 , 244 


258,027 


52,371 


46,336 


Bale 


3,128 


3,264 


487 


570 



EXPORTS , LOME STIC s 

Bacon 

Hams and shoulders a/.... 
Lard. 



G rains and preparations : 

Barley 

Corn 

Rice- 
Grain b/ 

Elour, meal, etc 

Wheat - 

Grain 

Elour wholly of 

United States wheat 

Fruit; 
Ere sh- 

Apples • . . . 

Pears 

Oranges. ... 

Grapef ruit 
Dried- 
Apples . . . . 

Apricots. . 

P rune s . . . . 

Raisins. . . 
Canned pears 



Tobacco leaf : 

Bright flue-cured. . . . 
Dark-f i red % en tacky 

and Tennessee , 

Other leaf 

Total leaf tobacco 
Cotton, expl* linters 
( Running bale s ) 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
a/ Includes Cumberland and Wiltshire sides, 
b/. Includes paddy in terms of cleaned. 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



611 



UNITED STATES: Imports (for consumption) of principal agricultural products, 

July- S opt ember, 1935 end 1936 



Commodity imported 



Ju ly- Se ptemb er 



COMPETITIVE 
ANIMALS AND MImAL PRODUCTS: 
Anim als, live; 

Cattle 

Hogs, (except for breeding) 

Horses 

Dairy ' product s_ : 

Butter 

Casein. , 

Cheese- 
Swiss 

Cheddar 

Other 

Total cheese 

Cream 

Milk- 
Condensed and evaporated 

Dried and malted 



Whole, sk. and buttermilk. .. . 

Eggs and egg pro ducts_ ; 

Eggs, in the shell 

Egg albumen, dried 

Yolks , dried 

Other egg products. . . , 

Hides and skins 

Meats end mea/b pro d ue ts : 

Beef and veal- 

Eresh , 

Pickled or cured 

Mutton and lamb, fresh 

Pork- 

Eresh 

Hams, shoulders and bacon. . . . 

Pickled, salted and other 

Poultry and game 



Meats, canned- 



Beef, including corned. 
Other canned 



Total canned 

Other rneats- 

Eresh 

Prepared or preserved. 

Total meats 

Sausage casings 



Tallow 

Wool, unmfd. , except free 
in bond , 



Unit 


: Quantity 


i V alue 




: 1935 


■ 1936 


: 1935 


: 1936 








: 1,000 


i 1,000 




' Thousands 


' Thousands 


: dollars 


; dollars 


No. 


• A Q 


■ . . ( ( 


. X , oX O 


! n p o k 


Lb. 


i X , Doc, 


• o,^lo 


« 1 A 




No. 


: 2 


: 3 


! 252 


\ 451 


Lb. 


! 448 


! 2 030 


: 78 


; 456 


T V 

lib . 


334 


! 4 476 


: 22 


' 385 


Lb. 


i 1 , 772 


: 2,224 


: 482 


i 630 


Lb. 


a/ 


■ 5,535 


: a/ 


; 761 


Lb . 


S+340 


9 9 So 3 


: 1..760 


: 2.114 


Lb. 


10,112 


17,713 


; 2 , 242 


' 3,505 




k/ 


! 9 


: k/ 


: 14 


Lb. 


152 


690 


! 6 


31 


Lb. 


848 


7,279 


: 51 


359 


Eel . 


3 


18 


: l 


4 




68 


69 


12 


11 


Lb. 


541 


765 


245 


301 


Lb. 


1,162 


1,566 


: 157 


217 


uu. 


335 


241 


43 


42 


L"h 


73,915 


c/ 


11,397 


12, 313 


Lb. 




864- 


1 74. 

1 It 


79 


T "K 


148 


5 ?5. 


15 


:■».. 47 


Lb. 




6 


1 


1 


Lb. 


1 , rlo 


T C ^ O 

3,5<id 


236 


466 


Lb. 


1 , d62 


6,501 


335 


1, 725 


Lb, 


A OP 


p. n 
ooo 


yi. 


166 


Lb. 


Q P 


PC\ r ) 

Py f, 


oU 


113 


Lb. 


18,712 


22,881 


1,353 


2,152 

6 


Lb . 


219 


26 


19 


Lb. 


18,931 


22,907 . 


1,372 


2.160 


Lb. 


162 


89 


21 i 


17 


Lb. 


0 


0 


o : 


0 


Lb. 


25,879 


35 , 722 


2,275 : 


4,774 


Lb. 


3,103 


3,564 


1 , 520 : 


1,417 


Lb. ] 


59 , 652 


41,925 


3 , 417 j 


2,005 


Lb. j 


10,327 


21,572 


1,799 j 


5,068 



Continued - 



612 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



UNITED STATES: 



Imports (for consumption) of principal agricultural 
July-September, 1935 and 1935, cont'd 



Vol. 33, Ho. 20 

product s , 



Commodity -imported 

COMPE TITIVE, C0ITT" l "r7~ 
VEGETABLE PRODUCTS: 

Coffee imported into P.R 

C otton, unmfd. (478 lb. bale) 

Raw, except 1 inters 

Linters , 

Pee da and fodders: 

Beet pulp, cjried (2,240 lb.). 
Bran, snorts, etc.- 

Of direct import (2,240 lb.) 
Withdrawn bonded mills 

Total bran, shorts, etc ."• . 

Hay (2,000 pound) 

$il cake and oil-cake meal- 
Bean (Soy) 

Coconut 

Cottonseed. 

Linseed 

All other 

Total oil cake and meal..". 
Pruit s : 

Berries, natural state 

Currant s 

Dates . . 

Figs 

Grapes 

Lemons 

Limes 

Pineapples- 
Fresh , . 

Prepared or preserved 

Product of the p. I 

Raisins 

Olives in brine 

Grains and, grain products: 

Barley, grain 

Barley, malt 

Corn , grain 

Oats, grain 

Rice- 

Uncleaned , 

Cleaned or milled 

Patna 

Meal , flour and broken .... 
Rye, grain 



Jul y- S ep t emb e r 



Uni t ! 


Quant i 


ty i 


Val-ue 




1935 i 


1936 ; 


1935 


1936 








l , ooo : 


1,000 




Thousands ' 


Thousands : 


dollars : 


do liars 


Lb. 


150 


o ; 


.17.: 


0 


Bale 


22 


44 ' 


. 1,460 ; 


2,727 


Bale 




16 : 


sj 


325 


Ton 


■ 3 


..... 5 . 


.82 


130 


Ton 


66 


77 


1 , 254 


1,796 


Ton 


23 


•24 


459 


432 


Ton 


89 


101 


1,713 


2, 223 


Ton ■ 


1 


23 


8 


162 


Lb. 


4,251 


7,733 


42 


104 


Lb. 


31,313 


15,361 


308 


119 


Lb. ■ 


■ 2,147 


•••• 7,196 


20 


74 


Lb. ■ 


: 3,258 


17,342 


30 


158 


Lb. 


1 . 029 


3, 322 


9 


34 


Lb . - 


41,998 


50, 954 


409 


439 


Lb. 


! 2,785 


!■■ 5,098 


184 


; ooo 


L'O . 


; 855- ■ 


: - ■ ■ 1,722 


48 


: 9 4 


Lb. 


i 6,594. 


■ 9,938 • 


225 


j 347 . 


Lb . 


; 1,137 


; 815 




: 50 


Ci . ft . 


: b/ 


\ i 


1 


', 4 


Lb. 


: . 4 . 


\ 533 . 


: *j 




Lb. 


\ 3,677- - 


; • • 4-, 653 


; 94 


j 127 




■ ■ ■ ■ 


i °J 




' 1 07 
. i j/ 


'■ • Tlh 

J_JlJ *■ 


• X ^ xJ (Zi £i 




77 


: 172 


Lb. 


: 1,159 


i 6,893 


: 61 


• 279 


Lb. 


: 85- 


: 95 


', ■ 6 


; 6 


Gal . 


1,384- 


: ■ ■ 967- 


J 743 


; ' 532 


: Bu. 


\ 330 


• 3,506 


\ 289 


; 2,378 


; Lb . 


: 96 , 743 


• 85,752' 


: 2,668 


■ 1,960 


| Bu. 


: 17,189 


: 6,994 ■ 


r*''7,729 


; 3 , o08 


j Bu. 


! 38 


: 15 


j 15 


i 5 


: Lb. 


: 225 


: ■ 694 


: 7 


j 20 


i Lb. ' 


: 897 


i ' 2,210 ' 


; 25 


: 57 


! Lb . 


• 234 


: ' ' 48 


i 8 


1 


: Lb. ' 


■ 2', 789 


; "26 , 172 


: ' 45 


1 428 


• Bu. 


1,886 


' 2,035 


; 883 


1,260 



Continued. - 



November IS, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



613 



UMIESD STATES: Imports (for consumption) of principal agricultural products, 

.July-September, 1935 and 1936, cont'd 







July- S ep t ember 


Oommou-X vy xmpoiocc. , 


U ill & 


Quantity 


Value 






iyoo 




Xi70.J 




COMPETITIVE. GOUT 'D 








1,000 ■ 


1, 000 


V iLriljiADJ.jiii rxtuxJUoxo, OUlMx'JJ; ; 




Thousands ' 


Thousands 


dollars : 


dollars 


Grains and srain prod., cont'd: • 












TJheat, grain- 












Dutiable at 42</ per bu. . . . . : 


Bu. 


4,611 


12,116 


2,974 : 


i r\ no c 

10, ybo 


Dutiable at 10fo ad val . &/ . 


Bu. 


•■ 2,397 ; 


3,259 


2,485 : 


O CO/1 

2, 584 


Milled in bond for export- ■ : 














Bu. 


8x6 • 


585 


714 1 






Bu. 




2.594 


1,302 


P Pi 6 


Total wiie at grain '. 


i3u . 


j ^tO D i 


18,654 


7,475 


1 6 ^77 

XO , O I i 




Box . 


Q. 


17 .; 11 




TJheat including flour ...... ; 

flil 0 ;. vpft 2 tpb 1 p* • 


xJU . 


q 4.Q1 ! 

O | to X 


18 732 


7.486 ■ 


1 6 A^S 




r* 1 • 

£/ ; 




3,795 ' 


4 P70 


Go c omit n i] . . ! 


T."h . ' 


78,664 ' 


p.m. Q(~\A 
00,0 vj^t 




2,375 


CiClTTX Oil 




5 , 496 '. 




uoX 


469 


Hot tori qppfi nil 


T,"r> 


37,720 ' 


f~7 o one 

o2 ,2ob 


<i, 2<dy 


1,821 


Li "n^ppr* nil.... 


Tib 


465 . 


1 r U 




9 


01 i vp n 'i 1 pnihl p ■ 


T.h 


n £ /lie 


T a for* a 

14 , yb o 


2, 021 


X, OXO 




Lb. : 


14, 223 


7 , 417 


932 


O r x 




Lb . 




4, yy r 


0 07 


2.LD 




Lb. ' 


r y , Ub b 


Aril 

79 , 021 


2, o67 


2, DbO 




Lb . 


14,220 


2, 056 


685 


loo 




Lb . 


22, b ^2 


ob , r oo 


X , ooo 


d , O f 1 




Gal . 


1,851 


3,115 


714 


1,476 




Lb. 


2,254 


661 


104 


35 




Lb. 


7,006 


11,468 


450 


730 


Oilseeds; 


Lb. 


37,227 


31,450 


4,148 


• 5,030 




Lb. 


24, 901 


22,411 


617 


508 




Lb. 


113,006 


114,276 


3,002 


2,427 




Bu. 


4,691 


2,500 


4,326 


3, 185 


Palm nuts and kernels 


Lb. 


7 } 166 


7 , 944 


138 


142 




Lb. 


3,267 


14,863 


98 


498 






oj 


cj 


699 


1, 079 


xon 


1,070 


661 


50,169 


. 38,548 


MoIp 3 ^ P <3 




63,377 


73,326 


3,324 


; 4, 092 


T obac c o , unmanuf ac tur ed : 














: Lb. 


. 14,239 


16,354 


6,501 


8,729 


Product of the p. I 


: Lb. 


! 698 


; 506 


i 67 


: 44 




: Lb. 


| 510 


j 445 


: 18 


: 16 


Vegetables: 












Beans- 














i Lb. 


i 7,619 


; 8,572 


j 189 


j 255 




: Lb. 


28 


• 28 


1 


1 



Continued - 



614 . Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 20 



UNITED STATES: Imports (for consumption) of principal agricultural products, 

July-September, 1935 and 1936, cont'd 











temper 




Commodity imported ■ 


Uni t 


> :,)X'-: . it 




V& lue 






1935 


1936 


' 1935 


; 1936 


COMPETITIVE, CONT'D • 


■ ■ 






1,000 


: 1,000 


VEGETABLE PRODUCTS, CONT'D: : 




: Thousands 


Thousands 


; dollars 


; dollars 


Vegetables, cont'd. : 












Chickpeas or garbanzos, dried ; 


Lb. 


: 2,188 


2,975 


j 69 


: 105 




Lb. 


i 1 , 248 


843 


: 87 


: 37 




Lb. 


: 2,198 


1,150 


: 48 


; 24 


Peas, except cowp's & chickp's-l 














Lb . 


: 605 


275 


: 22 


: 7 




Lb. 


1 


3 


■ y 






Lb. 


; 45 


4,583 


; 1 


: 69 


Tapioca- ; 














Lb. 


133 


2,190 


: 2 


49 




Lb. 


48.623 


57,031 


: 1,057 


: 1,168 




T."h 


: • by 


3 


: W 


= y 




JJ u » 


7,469 


15,008 


; 44 


i 120 




T.Vi 




"1 P, A 1 ^ 

-1- D ( 0\J I 


j 454 


■ 681 


Fibers, vegetable 1 (2.240 lb. ton*) 












Flax. unmPinuf a rtuTpfl . • 


Ton 


1 


1 


1 550 


\ 380 




Ton 


b/ 


w 


; 36 


: 45 


/Tilt, p nn "i n 1", p rrn ■fc'fcc* "n-nm frl • 




13 


9 


912 


: 747 


To tip 1 TiTiTir^iT^cil e^mnTip f i H vp 




















145,144 


154,839 


NON- COMPETITIVE ' 












ANIMAL PRODUCTS; \ 














Lb. 


17,297 


16,086 


23,779 


25,868 


Wool,unmfd. , free in bond ...... ' 


Lb. 


50, 745 


31,690 


7,049 


5,392 


VEGETABLE PRODUCTS: ! 














Bunch 


15,125 


16,414 


7,563 


7,866 


Coffee, ex- into Puerto Rico ... ; 


Lb. 


420, 707 


366,215 


29,939 


28,179 




Lb. 


117,396 ' 


126,591 


4,960 


6,758 




Lb . 


20,808 . 


21,344 


3,992 


4,601 




Lb. 


21,695 


CJ 


1,801 


1,615 




Lb. 


17,977 j 


29,176 


2,001 


2,906 


Fibers, v^get.q.blp.; (2,240 lb. ton): 














Ton 


2 


A ! 


338 


872 




Ton 


IS : 


7 : 


873 


979 


Sisal and henequen j 


Ton 


47 : 


27 i 


3,358 


3,014 


Robber, crude, incl. guayule . .. j 


Lb. 


281,044 : 


295,709 : 


31,714 


44,733 


Total principal agricultural- j 




















117,367 ' 


132,783 










145,144 : 


154,839 


TOTAL PRINCIPAL AGRI. PROD. ' 










287,622 


TOTAL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS . . . . i 








286,236 : 


322,796 


TOTAL IMPORTS, ALL COMMODITIES . : 








522,161 : 


615,043 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 
a/ Not separately classified prior to January 1, 1936. b/ Less than 500. 
cJ Reported in value only. 
&/ Unfit for human consumption. 



November 16, 1936 foreign Crops and Markets 615 

UNITED STATES: Import quantity of specified agricultural products, 

January-September, 1935 and 1936, and September, 1935 and 1936 



Commodity 


j Unit 


: J anuary- Sept emb e r 


September 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 






• Thousands 


; Thousands 


Thousands 


Thousands 


IMPORTS FOR CONSUMPTION: 
















279 


362 


14 


23 


Beef, canned, 


| 














57,205 


73,306 


7,752 


6,439 






21,948 


6,710 


122 


539 






34,016 


42,064 


3,632 


5,796 


Egg products, excluding 


j 
















0,1(0 


a no 

OU<d 


< oO 






206,977 


76,403 


14,236 


145 


T7n n 1 » / 




26,358 


90,177 


4,064 


7,055 


.Grains: 


; 














13,446 


28,893 


3,644 


4,604 






34,809 


12,656 


2,986 


4,144 






10,092 


60 


7 


. 13 






9,437 


2,183 


65 


613 






269,072 


207, S47 


27,566 


24, 923 






13,586 


9,423 


1 , 322 


1,813 






289,483 


300,871 


39,070 


49,865 


Vegetable oils: 
















255,242 


236,665 


25,965 


15,692 




. . • Lb . 


215, 753 


244,848 


28,274 


28,381 






90,710 


114,767 


10,495 


7,924 






62,424 . 


117,903 


6, 782 




Sugar, raw (2,000 pounds) ... 




2,758 i 


2,614 


131 


244 






213,341 : 


183,012 


14,553 


25,000 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 



i a/ Excludes v/ool imported free in bond for use in carpets, etc. 
; by Includes only wheat full duty paid and 10 percent ad valorem. 
| c/ Less than 500. 



616 



Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 33, No. 20 

WHEAT: Closing Saturday prices of December futures 



Date 


Chicago 


Kansas City 


Minneapolis 


Winnipeg a/ 


Liverpool a/ ; 


Aires b/ 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936- 


1935 


1936 




Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents. 


Cents 


Cents 


High c/. . 


108 


117 


111 


115 


127 


130 


95 


113 


99 


125 : 


82 


101 


Low cj . . . 


96 


113 


98 


110 


109 


126 


83 


105 


89 


115 '; 


75 


91 


Oct. 17. . 


101 


116 


103 


114 


118 


129 


89 


112 


95 


124 ! 


76 


99 


24. . 


99 


115 


101 


113 


114 


129 


86 


108 


94 


119 ; 


75 


94 


31. . 


99 


114 


100 


111 


113 


128 


85 


106 


91 


119 '• 


76 


93 


Nov. 7.. 


96 


115 


98 


113 


109 


129 


83 


106 


90 


115 ; 


76 


91 



a/ Conve 
other pri 



sions at noon buying rate of exchange, 
ces. c/'October 1 to date. 



b / Prices are of day "previous to 



WHEAT: Weekly weighted average cash price at stated markets 





All classes 


No 


. 2 


No 


. 1 


No. 2 


Hard 


No 


. 2 


Western 


Week 


and grades 


Hard Winter 


Dk.N. Spring 


Amber 


Durum 


Red Winter 


White 


ended 


six markets 


Kansa 


s City 


Minneapolis 


Minneapolis 


St. Louis 


Seattle a/ 




1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1935 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1935 


1935 


1935 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


High b/. . 


112 


132 


123 


125 


.139 


150 


121 


157 ' 


113 


122 


90 


99 


Low b / . . . 


98 


127 


111 


120 


127 


147 


110 


147 


104 


118 


33 


96 


Oct. 17. . 


105 


132 


116 


125 


133 


150 


118 


157 


109' 


122 


88 


99 


24. . 


104 


128 


114 


122 


132 


148 


118 


147 


105 


121 


86 


98 


31. . 


99 


129 


113 


120 


129 


149 


110 


156 


105 


113 


83 


99 


Nov. 7.. 


98 


127 


111 


121 


127 


149 


110 


155 


104 


122 


^ <j 





a/ Weekly average of daily cash quotations, basis No. 1 sacked, 
b/ October 1 to date. 



WHEAT: 



'rice per bushel at specified European markets, 1935-35 and 1936-37 



Date ■ Range 


Hard 
Winter 


Manitoba 
No. 3 


Argentina 
a/ 


Australia 
■b/ 


Berlin 

bJ 


Paris 


j_ ii fe j-^j. ^ 
and 
Wales 




No. 2 




Domestic 






Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


1935-36 d/i High 


101 


104 


91 


95 


229 


154 


81 


Low 


74 


82 


63 


71 


209 


121 


59 


1935-37 d/j High 


120 


131 


119 


125 


233 


204 


11? 


; Low 


101 


99. 


. 99 


100 


209 


177 


91 


Oct. i ; 


e/ 112 


117 


111 


117 


213 




105 




e/ 112 


122 


110 


116 


212 




108 


15 : 


e/ 120 


131 


119 


123 


212 




112 


22 : 














113 


29 • 














117 



Prices at 
are for w 
a/ Barus 
1 to date 



Paris are of day 
ek ending Saturd. 
o. b/ E.A.Q. c/ 
e_7 Nominal . 



previous to other prices. Prices in England and Wales 
3,y. Conversions made at current exchange rates. 
Producer's fixed price from August 16, 1934. d/ July 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



617 



FEED GRAINS AID RYE: Weekly average price per "bushel of corn, rye, 
oats, and barley at leading markets a/ 





Corn 


Rye 


Oats 


Barley 




Chicago 


Bueno s Aire s 


Minneapolis 


Chicago 


Minneapolis 


Week 


No. 


3 


Futures 


Futures 


No. 


2 


No. 


3 


No. 


2 


ended 


Yellow 














TJhite 








1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 


1935 


1936 




Cents 


Cents 


C en t s 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


Cent s 


Cents 


Cents 


High b/. . . . 


96 


118 


62 


OO 

tJ xJ 


42 


56 


80 


88 . 


58 . 


46 


113 


133 


Low b/. .... 


• 635-, 


59 


. 56 


94 


37 


47 


42 


48 . 


27 


25 


41 


58 








Dec. 


Dec. 


Dec. 


Dec. 














Uct . 1U .... 


83 


107 


62 


95 


40 


52 


. 55 


86 


31 


43 


58 


131 


17. . . . 


87 


109 


60 


95 


• 39 


. 52 


50 


85 


29 


43 


59 


133 














Jan . 














24 


81 


103 


61 


94 


38 


51 


49 


84 


29 


.41 


63 


125 


31 


65 


106 


59 


95 


38 


- 50 


49 


85 


29 . 


42 


65 


130 


Nov . 7 


63 


104 


59 


98 


37 


48 


49 


86 


29 


45 


60 


125 



a/ Cash prices are weighted averages of reported sales; future prices are simple 
averages of daily quotations, b/ For period January 1 to latest date shown. 

FEED GRAINS: Movement from principal exporting countries 



Commodity 
and 
country 



BARLEY, EXPORTS :c/ 

United States .... 

Canada 

Argentina 

Danube and Russia 

Total 

OATS, EXPORTS: c/ 

United States. . . . 

Canada 

Argentina 

Danube and Russia 

Total 

CORN, EXPORTS: d/ 

United States. . . . 

Danube and Russia 

Argentina 

South Africa 

Total 

United States 

imports 



Exports 
for year 



Shipments 1936, 
week ended a/ 



jl934-35 


1935-36 


Oct. 24 


Oct. 31 


Nov. 7 


July 
to 


1 


1935-36 
\l 


1936-37 

h/ 


: 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 






1,000 


1,000 


; bushels 


bushels 


bushels 


bushels 


bushels 






bushels 


bushels 


i 4,050 


9 ,886 


0 


112 


62 


Nov. 


7 


4,494 


• 3,705 


i 14,453 


6,882 








Sept. 


30 


2,061 


• 6 , 524 


| 20,739 


9,468 


292 


71 




Oct. 


31 


1,875 


2,387 


' 11,250 


37,375 


1,160 


875 


875 


Nov. 


7 


27,517 


14,067 


: 50,492 


63,611 










35,947 


26, 683 


: 1,147 


1,429 


0 


0 


3 


Nov. 


7 


368 


233 


: 17,407 


14,892 








Sept . 


30 


3,314 


3,170 


: 43,753 


9,790 


179 


234 


558 


Nov. 


7 


5,693 


3,562 


• 8 , 444 


2,847 


0 


0 


0 


Nov. 


7 


1 ,010 


260 


\ 70,751 


28,958 










10 ,385 


7,225 












Nov. ] 


. tc 






j 880 


837 


" 3 


0 


1 


Nov. 


7 


1 


. 3 


| 14,939 


14,984 


315' 


272 


77 


Nov. 


7 


145 


77 


'256,143 


304,789 


7,741 


8 ,193 


9,267 


Nov. 


7 


6,507 


9 ,267 


' 21,882 


8,910 


383 


75 


621 


Nov . 


7 


1.216 


621 


293,344 


329 , 520 










7, 869 


9,968 


: 36,451 


"16,399 















Exports as far 
as reported 



Compiled from official and trade sources, a/ The weeks shown in these columns are 
nearest to the date shown, b/ Preliminary. c/ Year beginning July 1. d/ Year 
beginning November 1. e/ November - September. 



618 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol, 33, No. 20 



COTTON: . Price per pound of representative raw cotton at Liverpool, 
November 6, 1936, with comparisons 

Growth : September . October , Nov. 

: 18 . 25 : 2 .9 , 16 " . 23 : 30 ; 6 

Cents : Cents i Cent s ' Cent s ; Cents : Cents : Cent s ! Cent s 

American - :::!;!:! 

Middling 0.4.72 i 14. 1.1 ;14.42 il4.02 |14. 25:14. 18 ;13.87 ;14.06 

Low Middling ;13.56;13.06 -13.39 :13.00 |13.03 1 12.95 ;12. 65 ;12. 64 

Egyptian (Fully good fair) - ; ■ j : j i ; • 

Sakellari di s ;21 . 60 \ 21 . 29 ;21 . 72 j 21 . 68 : 22 . 22 j 22 . 57 • 23 . 26 \ 23 . 08 

Uppers 16.03 \ 15. 46 jl5. 63 \ 15 . 37 i 15. 45 ■ 15. 36 ■ 14. 77 \ 15. 05 

Brazilian (Fair) - : : : : : : : i 

Ceara. .13. 56 i 13.06 :13. 29 j 13. 00 : 13. 23 i 13. 16 j 12. 99 i 13 .14 

Sao Paulo." 14.09 113.59 :13. 81 j 13 . 51 ; 13 . 74 j 13 . 67 j 13. 50 j 13. 65 

East Indian - : : j ! j : : 1 

Broach (Fully good) Ill . 83 : 11. 51 ill. 73 ; 11 . 47 ■ 11 . 50 i 11. 22 1 11. 12 : 11. 32 

C. P. OomraNo.l, superfine '12. 17 1 11. 85 ;12. 06 : 11. 79 j 11. 82 1 11 . 55 ill. 45 : 11 . 64 
Sind (Fully good) ilO . 31 ! 10. 07 jlO . 21 \ 9 .97 j 9 . 85 : 9 ..57 J 9 . 57 i 9.71 

Peruvian (Good) ■ ; .. • ■ : • ; • 

Tanguis ;17. 15 \ 16. 63 jl6. 89 j 16. 58 i 17. 00 \ 17. 13 J17.07 j - 



Converted at current exchange rate. 



BUTTER: Price per pound in New York, San Francisco, Copenhagen, and London, 
November 12, 1936, with comparisons 





1936 


; 1935 


Market and description 








November 5 


November 12 


November 14 




Cents 


Cents 


Cents 


New York, 92 score 


33.8 


33.0 


^' 35.0 




35.0 


33.0 


34.5 


Copenhagen, official quotation 


21.6 


21.9 


. 21.9- 


London: 










27.2 


27.2 


27.3 




23.6 


23.9 


22.6 




21.4 


22.4 


23.9 




21.6 


22.0 


21.6 



Foreign prices converted at current rates of exchange. 



November 16, 1936 • foreign Crops and Markets 619 

BUTTS?.: Few Zealand grading. 1936-37 season oo October 30, 

with comparisons 



Date : 1934-35 : 1935-36 ■ 1936-37 



: 1>Q00 pounds ; 1 . 000 pounds ; 1,000 pou nds 
'week ended ; • ; 

Augus t total ; 12 .853 j 14.717 ' : 12.235 

September 4 | 4,736 : 4,368 j '5,040 

11 j 5,432 : 5,040 ' ' '! 5,544 

18...,*. , j 6,261 : 5,376 . :■ 5,880 

25 : 6.580 : 5 r 768 ' : 6,664 

September total L , "tt uQll— . J 20*552- J 22+12h 

October 2 ' j 7,700 j ' 6,496 j 7,560 

9 \ 8,333 ■ - 7,633 ■ 8,120 

16 j 8,848 : 8,233 \ 8,960 

23 : 9,156 : 9,205 : 9,520 

30 j S*968 ; 9^.576 L_9^ZM 

October total ! 44 ,00 5 ; 41,143 : 43.904 



Total August 1 to October 30....: 79,868 ; 76,412 : 79,257 



Agricultural Attache C. C. Taylor, London 

BlJ'T'TSRj Australian grading, 1936-37 season to October 24, 
— — — , , with, comparisons , , 

Date ; 1934-35 ; 1935-36 ', 1936-37 



; 1.000 po und s ! 1 ,000 po unds ' 1,000 p o unds 

Vieek ended ; : : 

July total , . . i 5. 415 j , 4,318 J 1,055 

August 1 j 1,508 i 1,254 j 672 

8 ; 1,467 \ 1,337 . ' 764 

)-5 ..... '. j 1,606 : 1,315. j 1,942 

22 * : 2,193 j 1,579 . ..; 1,516 

29 ! 2.352 L 2^041 ^__2^£>22 

August total : 9.14 6 ; 7. 5 26 j 6.941 

September 5 : 2,913 ; 3,379 ! .2,613 

12 j 3,835 \ 3,040 : 2,639 M 

'.I s ' j 4,482 j 3,076 . ■ 3,060 . 

26 , . . . ; 5,076 I 3.9 4 0 : 5.759 

September total \ 1 6,507 j 12.435 '■ 12.070 

October 3 \ 5,784 T~ 4,771 : . 3,721 

10 : 6,500' ; 5,383 ! 4,059 

17 i 6,516 ! 6,704 I 4,731 

24 ** ! 7.302 ■ 7,155 : iU525 

October total : 2 6,103 : 24.015 : 17 t 056 



Total July 1 to October 24 \ 56,970 ! 48,192 37,103 



Weekly Dairy Produce Notes, Imperial Economic Committee, 



620 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 20 



GRAINS: Exports from the United States, July 1-lJov. 7, 1935 and 1936 
PORK: Exports from the United States, Jan. 1-Nov. 7, 1935 and 1936 



Comvaodi ty 


July 1 - 


- N^v. 7 




f/eek 


ended 




1935 


1935 


Oct. 10 


Oct. 24 


Oct . 31 


Nov . 7 


: 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1 0 . 


GRAINS: : 


bushels 


"bushels 


' "bushels 


"bushels: 


"bushels: 


bushels 




103 


1, 549. 


366 


45. 


296 






6,209 


: 5, 443 


207 


150 


122 


122 




4, 494 


• 3, 705 


39 


0 


112 


62 




65 


152 


0 


3 


0 


1 




198 


19 


Q 


' 0 


0 


3 




4 


: 0 


: 0 


0 


o 


0 




Jan. 1 - 


- Nov. 7 












1,000 


1,000 


1, 000 


: 1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


PORK: : 


pounds 


oounds 


pounds 


■pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


Hams and shoulders . . . . : 


48,015 


c/ 


'214 


265 


232 


9J 


Bacon, including sides : 


5, 876 


£/ 


123 


44 


90 


' £/ 




7,401: c/ 


112 


1 ■ "145 


9 


c/ 


Lard, excluding neutral: 


82,887 


: c/ 


1,183. 


1 , 530 


: 2,641 


c/ 



Official records, Bureau of 
week: Fackfic ports, wheat 
62,000 bushels, rice none, 
in terns of wheat, c/ Net 



Foreign and Domestic Con; 
, none, flour 500 barrels 

b/ Includes flour nilled 
available. 



aerce. a/ Included this 
; from San Francisco, barley 
in bond from Canadian wheat, 



MEAT , . INCLUDING FL( 
as given 


jUR: Shipments from principal exporting 
by current trade sources, 1934-35 to 1936 


countries 
>-37 


Country 


: Total 
: shipments 


: Shipments 1936 ' : 
; " week ended 


Shipments 
July 1 - Nov. 7 


: 1934-35: 1935-36 


Oct. 24 


Oct. 31 


Nov . 7 


1935-36 


: 1936-37 


North America a/ 

Canada, 4 markets by' .. 


: 1 , 000 : 1 , 000 
■ bushel s : bushels 


: 1,000 
bushel s 


1,000 
bushels 


1, J00 . 
bushels 


1 , 000 
: bushels 


1,000 
bushels 


•162, 332:219,638 
: 176, 059:245,109 
: 21,532: 15,930 


5, 176 
9, 982 
: 195 


6,152 
7 , 562 

418 


4, 968 : 
8,036: 
124 


55, 427 
132, 960 
6, 312 


:104, 174 
118, 421 
: 7,092 


Danube and Bulgaria d/ 


•186,223: 77,36"- 
: l"i 1, 628:110,060 
: 1,672: 30,224 
: 4,104: 8,216 
:c/2, 318:c/2, 529 


1, 984 
1,068 

' 0 

: 2,952 
803 


1, 096 
1,592 

o 

2, 544 
184 


1,603: 
1, 734 

0 

2,056: 
630: 


42, 564. 
33, 336 
16,776 
5, 624 
176 


20,331 
23, 934 

88 

30,352 
4,192 


Total e/ 

Total European snip- 


: 468, 782: 448, 101 








153, 903 


183,071 


: 387, 752:355,032 


9, 112 






1/ 

108, 992 


if 

122, 920 


Total ex-European ship- 


147, 938:133, 528 


3, "328 






37, 008 


11 
47,752 



ind trade sources. a/ Broorihall ' s Corn Trade News, 
b/ Fort William, Port Arthur, Vancouver, Prince Rupert, and New Westminster. 
cj Official. &/ Black Sea shipments only. ej Total of trade figures includes 
North America as reported by Broomhall, fj To October 24. 



November 16, 1936 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



621 



EXCHANGE nATES: Average weekly and monthly values in New York of 
specified currencies, November 7, 1936, with comparisons a/ 



Country 



Argentina. . 
Canada. . 
China . . 
Denmark . 
England. 
France . . 
Germany. 
Italy/. . 
Japan. . . 
Mexico . 
Netherlands.; 
Norway. . 
Sweden. . 
Switzerland 



Monetary 
unit 



Month 



1934 



Oct, 



Cents 



1935 



1956 



Oct. 



Cents 



Aug. 



Cent s 



Sept. 



Cents 



1 Paper peso 


32.95 


32..71 


33.50 


35.61 


32. 67 


52.60 


32. 60 


32 • 5o 


1 Dollar 


102.26 


98.58 


99.98 


100.02 


100.02 


100.01 


100.02 


100.04 


; Shang. yuan 


34.59 


55.61 


30,05 


29.94 


29.35 


29 . 54 


29.35 


29.38 


• Krone 


22.06 


21.91 


22.43 


22.48 


21.87 


21.82 


21.32 


21.80 


■ Pound, 


494.08 


490. 78 


502.59 


505. 65 


489.84 


486.89 


488.91 


488.32 


\ Franc 


6.62 


6.59 


6.59 


6.51 


4.67 


4.65 


4.65 


4. 64 




40.45 


40.23 


40.22 


40.08 


40.20 


40.21 


40.20 


40.21 


! Lira 


8. 61 


. 8.12 


7.87 


7.85 


5.55 


5.26 


5.26 


5.26 


j Yen 


28. 68 


28.-67 


29.40 


29 . 41 


28. 61 


28.56 


28.57 


28.54 


Peso 


27. 75 


27.76 


27. 75 


27.75 


27. 75 


27.75 


27.75 


27.75 


• Guilder .... 


68 ..09 


67.74 


67.90 


66.74 


55. 65 


53.80 


54.05 


53.78 


; Krone 


24.83 


24.66 


25.25 


25.30 


24.61 


24.56 


24.56 


24.53 


■ Krone 


25.48 


25.30 


25.91 


25,96 


25.25 


25.20 


25.20 


25.17 


Franc 


32. 77 


32.55 


32. 60 


31.42 


22.99 


22.98 


22.98 


22.98 



Oct. 



Cents 



Vfeek ended 



1936 



Oct. 

24 



Cunts 



Oct. 

51 



Cants 



Federal Reserve Board, a/ Noon buying rates for cable transfers. 



LIVESTOCK AND MEAT : Price per 100 
November 4, 1956, 



pounds in specified European markets, 
wi th comparisons a/ 



Market and item 



Week, ended 



November 6, 
1955 


October 28, . 
1956 


November 
1936 


: Dollars 


Dollars 


Dollars 


: 17.70 


17.70 


17.70 


• 16.57 


12.85 


12.98 


• Nominal 


17.68 


: 17.67 


i 18.74 


19.64 


1 20.36 


i 16.73 


17.57 


1 18.10 


: 21.12 


20.52 


: 20.45 


: 17.06 


13.51 


13,40 



Germany: 

Price of hogs, Berlin 

Price of lard, tcs. , Hamburg 

United Kingdom; b/ 

Prices at Liverpool first quality - 

American green bellies 

Danish Wiltshire sides 

Canadian green sides 

American short cut green hams 

American refined lard 



Liverpool quotations are on the basis of sales from i 



a/ Converted at current rate of exchange, b/ Week ended Friday. 



uporter to wholesaler. 



622 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 33, No. 26 



index 



Page 

Late cables 578 

Crop and Market Prospects 579 



Pagr- 



Agricultural exuorts, U.S.: 

Index numbers, September 1936 

Principal commodities, 

September 1936 585, 

Agricultural imports, principal 

commodities, U.S. , Sept ember 1936 .. 
Barley: 

Area and production, 

Canada, 1935,1936 

Production, Rumania, 1935,, 1936 .. 
Beans, dry, production, 

Danube Basin, 1935,1936 

Butter; 
Gradings: 

Australia, Oct. 24, 1936 

New Zealand, Oct. 30, 1936 

Prices, specified markets, 

Nov. 12, 1936 

Citrus fru.it, crop prospects, 

Mediterranean Basin, 1936-37 .... 



586 
607 
611 

578 
578 

581 



Corn, production, Rumania, 1935,1936. 
Cotton: 

Ginnings, E*?ypt , 

Sent ember-October 1936 

International trade, 

August-September, 1934-1936 

Prices, U.K., Nov. 6, 1936 

Exchange rates, foreign, Nov. 7, 1936. 
Flaxseed: 

Area and production, 

Canada, 1935,1936 

Prcd vict ion: 

Estonia, 1936 



619 
619 

618. 

582 
578, 



Rumania, 193 5,1936 



Grains: 

Exports, U.S., Nov. 7, 193^ .., 
Movement (fe3d) , principal 

countries, Nov. 7, 1956 

Prices (fe^d), principal 

markets, Nov. 7, 193 § 

Grapefruit, exnort prospects, 

Isles of Pines, Cuba, 1936-37 . 
HOGS AND FATS, EUROPE: 

Import allocations, U.K., 1936 
Imports, U.K., 1928-1936: 

Bacon and ham 

Lard , 

Pork (chilled or frozen) .... 



582 

587 
618 
621 



570 

578 
578 

620 

617 

617 

583 

602 

603 
604 
605 



HOGS AND FATS, EUROPE, CONT'D 

Numbers (hogs): 

Denmark, 1933-1936 602 

Germany, 1932-1936 602 

Specified countries, 1935,1936 . 601, 

Situation: 

Czechoslovakia 599 

Denmark 592 

Germany 596 

Netherlands 594 

Poland 59E 

• Switzerland 60C 

Soviet Union 601 

United Kingdom 590 

Supply and demand, indices, 

• specified countries, 1932-1936.. 605 
Meat (pork) : 

Exports, U.S., Nov. 7, 1936 62Q 

Import restrictions (tinned)-, 

U.K., 1936-37 . ... 584 

Imports (tinned) , U.K. , 

193 4-1936 - 58| 

Prices, foreign markets, 

Nov. 4,- 1936- 621 

Oats: 

Area and production, 

Canada," 1935, 1936 578 

Production, Rumania, 1935,1936 ... 578 
Rye: 

Area and production, 

Canada,." 1935,1936 578 

Prices, U.S., Nov. 7, 1936 617 

Production, Rumania, 1935,1936 ... 578 
Sugar beets, production, 

Czechoslovakia, 1935,1936 578 

Wheat: 

Area and production, 

Canada, 1935,1936 578 

Market situation, Europe, 

October 1936- 580 

Pr ices , sp ecif ied markets , 

Oct. 7, 1936 616 

Production: 

Rumania. 1935,1936 , 578 

Specified countries, 1935,1936.. 580 
Shipments, principal countries, 

Nov. 7, 1936 620 

Situation, Europe, 

Nov. 1, 1936 ~. 579 

Wool, market conditions, U.K., 

November 1936 585